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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2018 Archive

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“Loyalist Trails” 2018-10: March 11, 2018

Articles

What's a Woman to Do

© Stephen Davidson, UE

Imagine being a woman who had a loyalist for a brother, father, husband or son. Persecution at the hands of your rebel neighbours has forced you to leave your home and all that you have known. Your only hope of sanctuary is New York City, the headquarters of the British army during the American Revolution. You are far from home; you may have to become your family's breadwinner. Thousands of other refugees have flooded into the city from all over the American colonies -- how will you survive the duration of the war?

The answers to such questions are usually found in the personal correspondence and diaries of the era, but the chances are very slim that the woman's side of the refugee experience in New York City will ever be revealed in the full detail that it deserves. One source that provides a small glimpse into what loyalist women did in New York City in the last five years of the revolution can be found in the pages of Rivington's Royal Gazette -- the newspaper that served the British-occupied city.

By looking over the news, the personal notices, and the ads placed in the Gazette between 1778 to 1783, we can begin to see how women weathered the storms of war in a city overflowing with soldiers and refugees. However, details will be scant.

One last note before we begin our virtual turning of the pages of Rivington's Royal Gazette. During the American Revolution, men were considered to have political convictions -- not women. Thus when women are mentioned in the newspapers, we do not know how they felt about American independence. Most of the rebel civilian population left New York City when it was occupied by British forces in the fall of 1776. The citizens who remained behind were either neutral or loyal. The thousands of refugees who found sanctuary in New York after 1776 were loyal to the crown, but were not identified as loyalists when their names appeared in the Gazette's day-to-day notices and ads. Any woman named in this article is assumed to be a loyalist, given that she was employed in some fashion during the British occupation.

The most typical occasion for the appearance of a woman's name in the Royal Gazette was when her wedding was announced. But she had to fight for attention. Most of the notice carried the names of men: the bride's husband and his occupation, her father and his occupation, and the name of the minster who performed the wedding ceremony. The exception to this was the July 1780 wedding announcement for Henrietta McDonald because she married after "she, her mother, and a younger sister -- {had been} being detained three years in rebel country --- {and} escaped last February from Schenectady".

Death notices for women had the same high male content. Only rarely is there a more personal detail such as the one for Mrs. Elizabeth Gillespie who died "in child bed".

Outnumbering birth notices, the third highest number of references to women had to do with women of African descent who had run away from their masters. But black women were not the only ones to attempt an escape from desperate situations.

Margaret Balandine, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland came to the New World as the wife of a member of the 76th Regiment. When her husband died, the army expected her to earn her keep as a camp follower -- that is, as a cook, laundress, or seamstress. However, a 1781 Gazette reported that she had "run away from the service". Margaret Watt must have had similar feelings about staying with the military. Living at the 42nd Barracks at Paulus Hook, she sought a position "as a housekeeper or cook".

Elizabeth Dudly opened a confectioner's shop on Crown Street, not far from the Long Island ferry in June of 1779. Whether she had a lot of customers on their way to the Quaker Meeting house opposite her shop is not recorded. A year later, Rebecca Gomez advertised that her Chocolate Manufactory had "chocolate and other items for sale". Obviously a revolution did little to stifle the desires of a sweet tooth.

Also in June of 1789, Elizabeth Wilson, who identified herself as a refugee in her ad, sought a position as a housekeeper. Perhaps she revealed the losses she had endured as a loyalist in hopes of finding a sympathetic employer.

Catharine Wiley appeared in the Gazette because she was a nurse to a spinster named Catharine Bastow. Jane Water advertised the fact that she washed silk stockings and other silken articles at Number 108 Water Street.

While many women worked for others, some ran their own boarding houses or taverns. Mrs Mary Todd ran an establishment known as the Foul Anchor at Brownjohn's Wharf near the Fly Market. Mrs McCleve advertised that she had "a front room and cellar to let" at 39 Golden Hill.

In January of 1780, Mary Montgomery opened a school to teach "reading and needlework" on Cherry Street on the outer edges of the city. In October of that year, the death of sixty-year old Miss Blanche Beau was noted, reminding readers that she had "for many years taught school in New York City".

While these forms of employment for women are all commonplace to readers in the 21st century, another female service may be less familiar. In October of 1780, an advertisement -- no doubt placed by a desperate father -- sought "a woman with a good breast of milk, residing there, desires to take a child or go into a family". Two years later a similar ad was placed, saying that a "young woman wishes to nurse a child".

In December of 1783 after the refugee evacuation fleets had taken the last of the loyalists to other parts of the British Empire, Mrs McLean (formerly Mrs Glass) announced that she had moved from Little Queen Street to Broad Street across from a printer's shop. Since she was a midwife, this would be very important information for those women with a fast approaching due date.

In a city filled with thousands of soldiers and displaced men, it is saddening but not surprising that many women turned to prostitution to earn their keep. This fact of life surfaced within the pages of the Gazette. One citizen posted an angry notice that "his reputation has been damaged by the lying propaganda of some rebellious and villainous prostitutes".

While this reference is rather general, Joshua Hamilton published the name of his wife Elizabeth who had "become a common prostitute to both soldiers and sailors" in his three years as a prisoner of war in South Carolina. Assuming that her husband had died in battle, Elizabeth had become the wife of a Hessian soldier the previous October.

Not all of the references to women in Rivington's Royal Gazette are so scandalous. Some could be the basis for a romantic comedy. In September of 1783, Lt. Thomas Caffield of the North Carolina Regiment placed a notice, charging that his wife Martha had been taken from him. He claimed that his mother-in-law was hiding Martha "to prevent her leaving New York with her husband to Nova Scotia or St. Augustine {Florida}".

Perhaps the well-intentioned mother had taken a long hard look at how difficult the war had been for loyalist women seeking employment in New York City. Taking in silk laundry, housekeeping, teaching, nursing, shop-keeping or serving grog were hardly lady-like pursuits. Perhaps Martha's mother felt that the women's jobs noted in the Gazette would be considered as nothing when compared to the demands on a loyalist's wife in Nova Scotia in the years to come. What was a woman to do?


To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

Loyalist Scholarship News

The Scholarship Committee forecasts an early Spring

For members of the scholarship committee, spring begins in February as we anticipate Loyalist Scholarship applications. We are happy to report a promising beginning to 2018. This year UELAC celebrates 20 years of UELAC Scholarship. Since its beginning in 1998, eleven students have received funding towards completion of a graduate degree in relevant Loyalist research. With each successful dissertation, new published research is added to the UELAC resource library.

This year we will celebrate with Stephanie Seal Walters and Sophie Jones as they complete their programs and receive doctoral degrees. At UELAC we never say goodbye to the students who have benefited from our scholarship program. Fortunately for us, these individuals are only a text, an email, a phone call away. One could not wish for a better or friendlier source of current Loyalist knowledge.

What's Happening on the Ground?

This week we check in with Stephanie Seal Walters -

Stephanie writes, "I've managed to book myself up almost every weekend until May with talks and conferences. The most notable this year includes Carter Hall in Millwood, Virginia where I am giving a talk on the Randolph family of Virginia for the Mosby Heritage Association. The Randolphs were a split loyalist/patriot family. This coming March, I am the Emerging Scholar lecturer for the Conference on the American Revolution in Williamsburg, Virginia. I am presenting 'Civil War of the Heart: Virginia's First Families and the Revolution's Devastation at Home.' "

And to those who support UELAC scholarship through donations or just by spreading the word this note of appreciation is for you -

"This scholarship has meant so much for my research and I know I wouldn't have been able to travel for some of my more important source collections without the support. I am so proud to be one of the UELAC scholarship holders and I absolutely cannot wait for December to defend all of this hard work. And as always, please let me know if there is anything I can do for you or anyone else at UELAC!" Best, Stephanie.

Coming Soon! Celebrate Twenty (April 1 - July 1, 2018)

Four hundred years ago William Shakespeare wrote these words -- "April hath put a spirit of youth in everything." On April 1, 2018 we will celebrate that spirit of youth with the launch of the 2018 Celebrate Twenty scholarship challenge.

Please join us as we celebrate twenty years of Loyalist Scholarship with a new fundraising challenge. Details will be available in the coming weeks through Loyalist Trails or by email to: scholarship at uelac.org.

...Bonnie Schepers UE, Scholarship Chair

Remembering the Loyalists of Annapolis and Digby Counties, Nova Scotia

By Brian McConnell, UE

Over 230 years ago approximately 20,000 United Empire Loyalists came to Nova Scotia as refugees after the American Revolution. How can they be remembered? Their presence is noticeable in Annapolis and Digby Counties in the names of communities, in the Loyalist era churches and cemeteries with their gravestones, in buildings and monuments, interpretative signs and plaques, and in street signs.

Read more (seven pages with photos).

Mapping the Georgian World: Global Power & Maps in the Reign of George III

The Hanoverian British monarchy presided over a vast array of dominions spread across the globe, each presenting its own challenges to those who needed either to understand or to govern and exploit the different regions. Maps came to play a crucial role in confronting those challenges, transferring knowledge and opportunities across considerable distances, not least to those who never traversed them themselves. One such person was King George III -- a monarch who, though in many respects defined in his reign by his relations with both North America and Europe, was unusual amongst his contemporary rulers in never leaving his own kingdom (and even England) at any point in his reign. Yet George had a keen interest in his dominions, and this found expression not least in his interest in maps, of which he became an avid collector and a patron to mapmakers.

This panel brought together Peter Barber, the leading authority on George III's map collection and former head of the Map Collection at the British Library, and Dr Max Edelson, a leading authority on the mapping of colonial America and a pioneer of its digital interpretation, to discuss the place of maps in the exercise of rule and authority in the eighteenth century.

These richly illustrated talks provided a fascinating opportunity to reflect on the significance of these often beautiful and intricate objects in shrinking distance and creating understanding in the age of Enlightenment. Watch the lectures from the Georgian Papers Programme.

Atlantic Loyalist Connections: New Brunswick Loyalist Story Mapping Project

by Zoe Louise Jackson 7 March 2018

"I need a job" says one bleary-eyed and impoverished student to another; "one that is within my academic field." However, in order to eventually get that dream job instead of a nightmare career (where the employee watches the clock tick to 4:30 with hungry eyes and assumes the running position), a person needs experience. What does "experience" even mean, and why is a student's degree not enough? My answer: student jobs on campus are the true academic riches, as it is not only experience that is gained, but also the pursuit of a career related interest. Being an avid and unashamed history nerd, the summer of 2017 presented a wholly unique and enriching opportunity that I will say in years to come was the turning point of my undergraduate career success. That leads me to Esri GIS (Geographic Information Systems) story mapping---something that I had never encountered before applying for the job as Story Map Designer at the Microforms Department in the Harriet Irving Library (why they hired me, I do not know).

GIS combines narrative text, maps, and multimedia content to convey geographical movement that corresponds with the narrative being told. Hence, the story correlates to the map(s) being displayed to create a visual and cohesive presentation that is equally engaging and informative. The content and geographic maps can be contemporary or historical (or both, to show continuity and change over time), depending on the nature of the project. An example of a historically-based story mapping project is the "New Brunswick Loyalist Journeys," where I designed the layout and visual aesthetics of ten story maps. This project tracks the displacement and resulting exile after the American Revolution of ten Loyalists, as well as their later arrival in Parr Town (present-day Saint John) and St. Anne's Point (present-day Fredericton).

Read more.

JAR: The Loyalist Raid on Newtown: The Consequences of Being Surprised

by Andrew A. Zellers-Frederick 5 March 2018

The small village of Newtown played a noteworthy role during the American Revolution from the time when General Washington's army retreated in 1776 across New Jersey into Pennsylvania through the British occupation of American capital of Philadelphia until mid-1778. This was due to its geographical location in Bucks County, having been since 1726 the seat of justice. With a population of nearly four hundred, it was the site of the county's courthouse and jail. The actual violent physical aspect of the war did not strike this community until February 1778 when Loyalist units attacked, causing twice the number of American casualties that Washington's forces suffered at Trenton a little more than a year previously.

Following the 1777 British campaign to seize the American capital of Philadelphia, Gen. Sir William Howe and the Crown's forces settled into a relatively comfortable occupation of the largest English-speaking city in North America, as opposed to Washington's suffering forces encamped around their Valley Forge cantonment. In France, when Benjamin Franklin was told of this situation, he responded: "You mean, Sir, Philadelphia has taken Sir William Howe." It was true that the British commander-in-chief had taken elaborate defensive measures behind a series of strong fortifications designed to prevent American attacks, but Franklin underestimated his foe. Howe and his men were relatively safe and less apt to risk aggressive maneuvers during the winter months; however, when it was deemed necessary to the garrison's survival or when a golden military target presented itself, the British viper did make lightning strikes out of its fortifications.

Read more.

JAR: Richard Howe, Admiral of the British Fleet in NA and Peace Commissioner

by Bob Ruppert 7 March 2018

In the Spring of 1775, Benjamin Franklin, still stationed in England, made what he thought was a last attempt to secure a plan of reconciliation between Great Britain and her American colonies. One of the men he worked with was Adm. Lord Richard Howe. Though their efforts proved unsuccessful, at their final meeting on March 7, they promised to support each other if there ever was another effort.

He [Lord Howe] was sorry that [in the end there] was no Appearance of Things going [as] he had wished ... if he should chance to be sent [as a Peace Commissioner] on that important Business [to America], he hop'd he might still expect [Franklin's] Assis- -tance. [Franklin] assur'd him of his Readiness at all times of co-operating with him.

On March 21, Franklin set sail for Philadelphia. Any future effort on their part was delivered a series of blows four weeks later with the events at Lexington and Concord followed by the convening of the Second Continental Congress, the appointment of George Washington as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental forces, the battle of Bunker Hill, the siege of Boston, and the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition. On August 23, George III would declare that the colonists have at length proceeded to open and avowed rebellion, by arraying themselves in a hostile manner, to withstand the execution of the law, and traitorously preparing, ordering and levying war against us.

Read more.

Ben Franklin's World: The Value of the Enslaved from Womb to Grave

Daina Ramey Berry, an Associate Professor of History at the University of Texas, Austin and author of The Price For Their Pound of Flesh: The Value of the Enslaved, from Womb to Grave, in the Building of a Nation, takes us behind the scenes of her research so we can explore how early Americans valued and commodified enslaved men, women, and children.

As we go behind the scenes of Daina's research, we discover the prices early Americans ascribed to enslaved men, women, and children; The relationship between age and an enslaved person's economic value; And, how the end of the transatlantic slave trade and the rise of the domestic slave trade impacted the values of enslaved people.

Listen to the podcast.

Panoramic Watercolors Made on Beacon Hill, Boston

by British officer Richard Williams, now at Boston Public Library

A View of the country round Boston taken from Beacon hill : shewing the Lines, Ridouts & Different Encampments of the Rebels also those of his Majesty's Troops under the command of his Excellency Lieut. General Gage, Governor of Massachuset's Bay &c &c. These Drawings are most humbly inscribed to Colonel James of the Royal Artillery by his obliged Servant R.d Williams. See five paintings.

Where in the World?

The cupboard once again is bare. In this day of digital photography, pics cost nothing; and in 2014, according to Mary Meeker's annual Internet Trends report, people uploaded an average of 1.8 billion digital images every single day. That's 657 billion photos per year. Another way to think about it: Every two minutes, humans take more photos than ever existed in total 150 years ago. Surely you must have some of people in Loyalist gear in some historical place – you could be that 1,800,000,001st photo for tomorrow!

Please submit a photo of a person or two (or more), preferably with a loyalist connection such as clothing (UELAC promotional gear or heritage attire) at a place or event with some loyalist or related historical aspect and tell us about it. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well. Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

Region and Branch Bits

From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.

  • Nova Scotia Branch Spring meeting on Sat 14 April: Business meeting 11:00 - noon at Halifax Central Library, lunch break on your own and tour of St Paul's Church 1:30 - 3:30 See meeting flyer. More info novascotia@uelac.org

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • Remains of American revolution-era ship revealed by Nor'easter winds shifting sand on Maine beach. 'Each time, roughly once every decade or two, new maritime history buffs are born' as wreck periodically uncovered. Every now and then, a storm ravages the coast of southern Maine so totally that it provides a glimpse of colonial history.
  • Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
    • 10 Mar 1783 Last naval battle of the Revolution is fought off the Atlantic coast of Florida.
    • 9 Mar 1781 Spanish Gen. Galvez besieges British-occupied Pensacola, eventually winning all of Florida for Spain.
    • 8 Mar 1775 Thomas Paine publishes African Slavery in America. An important and widespread article in the United States calling for the emancipation of slaves and the end of slavery.
    • March 8, 1776 Congress bans the enlistment of any Indian lacking prior assent of both Congress & his tribe's national council.
    • 8 Mar 1782 Pennsylvania Patriot militia kills 96 pacifist, Christian-convert Indians at Gnadenhuetten.
    • 7 Mar , 1776 Savannah, GA Sir James Wright, Royal Governor of Georgia, fails to recapture Savannah as two "fire ships" threaten their fleet and British ships withdraw.
    • 7 Mar 1781 Gen. Sumter's men burn Ratcliff's Bridge at Bishopville, SC & escape into swamp from British detachment.
    • 6 Mar 1776 NY Provincial Congress dispatches force to disable Sandy-Hook lighthouse to confound British invasion.
    • 5 Mar 1770 Boston Massacre inflames Colonists as British fire on mob, killing 5.
    • 4 Mar 1776 Cannon seized from Fort Ticonderoga are placed overlooking Boston, dooming British occupation.
  • From the Massachusetts Historical Society -
  • Townsends
  • The Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership has been established at University College London with the generous support of the Hutchins Center at Harvard. The Centre will build on two earlier projects tracing the impact of slave-ownership on the formation of modern Britain: the Legacies of British Slave-ownership project (2009-2012), and the Structure and significance of British Caribbean slave-ownership 1763-1833. Colonial slavery shaped modern Britain and we all still live with its legacies. The slave-owners were one very important means by which the fruits of slavery were transmitted to metropolitan Britain. We believe that research and analysis of this group are key to understanding the extent and the limits of slavery's role in shaping British history and leaving lasting legacies that reach into the present. The stories of enslaved men and women, however, are no less important than those of slave-owners, and we hope that the database produced in the first two phases of the project, while at present primarily a resource for studying slave-owners, will also provide information of value to those researching enslaved people. Visit the site...
  • Abigail Adams and Her Dimity Pocket, late 18th Century. I was fortunate to take a bit of a detour and view an accessory associated with Abigail Adams (1744-1818), the second First Lady of the United States. The MHS has a pieced dimity pocket, which belonged to her in the late 18th century. The pocket is 14 inches long and comprised of eight pieces of dimity. According to family tradition, she may have used the pocket into the early 19th. The maker is unknown. Cotton tapes serve as ties. It is its very simplicity and functionality which renders the piece so striking. More...
  • 18th Century dress, robe à l'anglaise; red silk damask; England, c.1775. The fabric was designed by Anna Maria Garthwaite, an important English textile designer and the only woman known to have worked in Spitalfields
  • Rare, early 18th century (c. 1730s-40s) saque back gown via Trouvais. Appealing palette & pattern, self fabric ruched trim. A stunner! Robe a la francaise.
  • List of masquerade costumes worn at a Carlisle House party of 1772. Bravo to the ingenious lady who simply went as a 'Drunken Woman'
  • From All Things Georgian: An Elephant Never Forgets. The adage that an elephant never forgets seems very appropriate given the following three accounts - read on.
  • Abigail Adams: "I hate to complain. . No one is w/o difficulties, whether in high or low life & every person knows best where their own shoe pinches"--to Mary Smith Cranch, 3/21/1790
  • 18th Century court dress worn by Mrs. Ann Fanshawe when her father was Lord Mayor of London in 1752-53, Spitalfields silk
  • Late 18th Century men's 3 piece court suit, silk taffeta and silver thread embroidery
  • Detail of 18th Century men's court suit, probably French, 1770-90 via Kyoto Costume Institute
  • Illustration of a performance by magician and pioneer of phantasmagoria shows Phylidor, from a 1791 handbill.
  • The Secret Behind the 18th Century Hot Chocolate Pot. most of my heroines prefer to drink chocolate the first thing in the morning instead of tea. Drinking chocolate was introduced to Europe by the Spanish and by the late seventeenth century it was a popular morning beverage. It was served warm, like it is today, however it was not as sweet as the hot chocolate we're accustomed to. The painting above shows a servant girl presenting a cup of chocolate and a glass of water to a young French noblewoman as part of her breakfast.

Queries

How "Loyal" Were Our Loyalist Ancestors?

The article about Galloway and Low (JAR: Patriots Turned Loyalist, Feb. 25) got me thinking about my own Loyalist ancestors, and how they came to be Loyalists. It's not as clear-cut as the history text books like to make out. And for the privates and the refugees, it definitely wasn't an ideological or philosophical struggle.

I'm writing in hopes of locating some study of the common Loyalist, the one that we are all probably descended from. I'd also like to know if others own ancestors have changed sides. How common a practice was it?

My Loyalist ancestors couldn't be described as fervent. Even "Loyalist" seems like a stretch:

Ephraim Seeley

Ephraim Seeley was born in Stratford [Trumball], Connecticut. He fought with the Connecticut Militia from 1777, may have been present at the Raid on Danbury, and by 1778 was in the Connecticut Line of the Continental Army. From December 1778 through March 1779, Ephraim was on duty at Horseneck in Greenwich, Connecticut. A little more than 20 miles way, there was a considerable British force encamped at Kingsbridge, Bronx. It has been conducting raids on American points in Connecticut, and the landing at Horseneck was in their sights. On the morning of February 26th, the British raided the landing and quickly drove off the small American contingent. Three weeks later Ephraim was absent from the American muster roll and on March 18th he was reported deserted from "H Neck." On March 21st he enlisted with Emmerich's Chassuers, a unit that was attached to the British Loyal American Regiment, and one of the regiments that had dislodged the Americans from Horseneck. The Chassuers were soon dissolved due to internal politics, and the men were reassigned to other regiments. Ephraim Seeley appears on the April through June Muster Roll of the Guides and Pioneers, another detachment associated with the Loyal American Regiment.

After the peace Seeley and his family settled in New Brunswick, Canada.

The Greenlaw Family

The Greenlaws were a large Scottish family who had settled on Deer Isle, Maine, about 1762. At the outbreak of hostilities, the Americans tried to get the brothers to sign on to their cause, but they preferred to stick to their farms and stay out of it. Eventually the 4 brothers were kidnapped by the Americans and were "abused in the most inhuman manner," according to a claim made by Ebenezer Greenlaw. They were soon released, and they and their families went into the garrison at Penobscot until the end of the war. Some 35 Greenlaws left Penobscot for St Andrews. New Brunswick, Canada, after the war.

The Greenlaws didn't fight for the Americans, but they didn't fight for the British either. To be more precise: 1 of the 35 enlisted with the American, 1 with the British, but for the most part the family stayed out of the war. They were Baptists for the most part. None were Quakers.

Samuel Johnson Sr & Jr

Samuel Johnson was born in New Hampshire, and came to mid-coast Maine in the 1770s. He settled at Balltown [Whitefield], one of the tracts of land in that area with conflicting claims on it. Johnson's farm was part of this conflicted land, and he acquired it by deed, one of a string of quit-claims. He enlisted with the Americans, wintered outside Valley Forge that harsh winter, was present at the Battle of Rhode Island, and eventually deserted after the failed Penobscot Expedition. His enlistment was probably in hopes of acquiring his land's clear title as a spoil of war, a payment for his service.

After the war the legal (and sometimes physical) fight with the Proprietors over the title to land in the area dragged on, with the courts eventually siding with the Proprietors (some even British). Title could be acquired by the squatters, but not fairly or cheaply. Johnson eventually sold of his land (or the claim to his lot), and died intestate. His widow was regularly mentioned in the poor rolls.

Johnson's son Samuel Johnson Jr left Maine about 1804 and headed north to New Brunswick. He must have had a few choice words to say about the fight for Independence, and the failure of his family to prosper as a results. For he married the daughter (eventually two of the daughters) of one of the disabused Greenlaw brothers. In fact, Greenlaw even sold him his 200 acre farm!

I couldn't call any of these folk quite "Loyal." They all seemed practical, possibly opportunistic.

I'd like to know if others had family histories like this. Have any studies been done on how many Loyalists were once Patriots?

The more I learn about the Loyalists, the more interesting they become. Especially the poorer, little heard from ones. My Loyalist lines were poor and unsettled, on the whole, after the Revolutionary War. The result was a very thin paper trail. I will be fortunate to find enough detail to obtain my "UE" post-nominal and Loyalist Certificate.

...William D. Romanski, Rhode Island

List of Loyalists Upbound from Montreal in 1784

The obituary of my Gt Grandfather Jacob J Poaps (1823-1896) of Osnabruck, indicates that his grandfather and family emigrated from the USA via the Oswegatchie River and travelled in flat boats with the Mattice's , Fykes and Wearly's to Hoople Creek. (Actually he was probably not released from Butler's Rangers, until mid 1784, so it could have been his grandmother and maybe her oldest son Rudolph, reduced in early 1784 from the KRRNY).

To me, this sounds like they were conveyed upstream from Lachine in the spring of 1784 and off loaded at the German township #3, (maybe at Dickinson's Landing) later to be called Osnabruck.

Rud'l Papist's name is on the McNiff map of 1784, (Con 2-Lot 12W1/2), indicating a 100 acre land grant for his service with the KRRNY, so I assume that would have been the destination.

Is there a source document where I can confirm those who were encamped at Lachine, Isle aux Noix or other refugee camps in the Montreal area? I do not believe that JF Pringle's , "The Old United Empire Loyalist's List", confirms those that were transported up stream in the spring of 1784 and later, but I understand there is a list of those who were accepted as UE's. Does this mean the Haldimand papers at Brock might contain this kind of information?

Thanks for any pointers.

...Richard Poaps, UE

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