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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2017 Archive

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“Loyalist Trails” 2017-30: July 23, 2017

Articles

UELAC Conference 2018, Mark your Calendar

Its always a comfortable time when Loyalists get together, we feel connected, almost related ... our ancestors came through so much together.

"LOYALIST TIES UNDER LIVING SKIES"

Members of the Saskatchewan Branch are pleased to host the 2018 National Conference in Moose Jaw, SK on June 7-10, 2018.

The conference venue is the Temple Gardens Hotel and Spa, recently renovated, just half a block from Main Street. Bring you bathing suits, it has a large geothermal pool, walk down a ramp and bask in the soothing mineral waters, continue into the outside pool if you desire. Luxury bath robes provided!

Booking is now available. Special room rates $165/night, single and double occupancy. A variety of rooms are available under this rate. Phone 1-800-718-7727, Quote UELAC -- Sask Branch, 124551 for your reservations.

Watch for further updates.

Loyalists and Their Horses (Part 2 of 3)

© Stephen Davidson, UE

Just as mechanized vehicles played an important role in the wars of the 20th century, so too was the horse a valuable military tool during the American Revolution. Not only were horses the fastest means for British forces to move through the rebelling colonies -- and therefore crucial to effective military operations-- but they were a means by which loyal Americans could lend assistance to the royal forces. That service took a variety of forms as a quick sampling of loyalist stories demonstrates.

Obadiah Ackerley, a loyalist from Courtlandt Manor in New York, raised a "troop of horse" for Col. DeLancey in 1777. When rebels imprisoned Ackerley for his collusion with the British, they took his furniture, cattle, and clothes. He lost "all his horses in service". The man who had ridden horses, recruited horsemen, and provided horses for the royal cause lost all that he had, eventually finding sanctuary in New Brunswick. Along with his mother and two brothers, this loyalist horseman settled along the shores of the colony's Grand Lake.

Elijah Benedict of Woodbury, Connecticut had moved to Vermont where --in 1777-- he joined General Burgoyne's army. Although he volunteered to fight against the rebels, it seems that his horse was drafted. Benedict had a certificate asserting that his steed had been "taken into the service of the government by order of General Burgoyne". A year later, without his horse, Benedict fled to Canada where he worked in the engineers department. He eventually settled in St. Johns, Lower Canada.

Another loyalist who made St. Johns his home following the revolution was Richard Wragg. Despite declaring his loyalty at the outset of the "Troubles", helping loyal Americans "in secret services" and being persecuted by the rebels of Saratoga, Wragg had his horses and cattle taken by Burgoyne's army. The British also destroyed his furniture, wheat and corn and took Wragg's provisions and "utensils".

As he sought compensation from the crown for his wartime losses, John Bond also listed horses that had been taken by the British as well as patriots. The South Carolinian loyalist once had 26 horses. Rebels stole 21 from his farm during the siege of Fort Ninety-Six, then Bond lost two after fleeing to Orangeburg. Finding refuge in British-held Charleston, Bond lost the remainder of his horses. (The so-called "lost" horses may be those described by a friend as being "taken by the British".)

Samuel Cornwell also suffered losses at the hands of the army he faithfully supported. This loyalist had an incredible string of bad luck during the revolution whether it dealt with his horses or his other possessions. Originally from New York's Dutchess County, Cornwell built a house within British lines after 1776. However, since it was on a rebel's land, he eventually lost it all. The British army took his cattle, and a patriot "plundering party" stole his horses and the sleigh that he used to haul wood for the army. Two other horses were lost "in the service", and one died while Cornwell chased after a group of rebels. Patriots imprisoned the loyalist in 1778, taking his money, clothes, and two other horses.

It is rare to find the name of the British officer who ordered the seizure of a loyalist's horses, but Nathaniel Golding knew exactly who had made off with his two horses -- Captain Simcoe, the future lieutenant governor of Upper Canada.

George Bonds, a loyalist who made Rawdon, Nova Scotia his home, suffered an even greater loss. He once was the owner of sixteen horses. Six were kept on his plantation in South Carolina and ten served in the British army. Bonds joined the British after they captured Charleston, and then was among those who fled the city when it was returned to patriot forces. As he sailed north to Halifax in 1782, Bonds mourned the loss of 10 cows, 50 hogs, a wagon, tools, furniture, and all 16 of his horses.

John Murphy was another loyalist settler of Rawdon. As he reflected on his wartime losses, he recalled cattle, sheep, wheat, corn, furniture and tools. But the final straw had been when rebels stole his three good riding horses claiming that "they were too good for a Tory".

Benjamin Sealey was the loyalist counterpart of Paul Revere, using his horse a means to deliver dispatches and carrying military intelligence to the British. He also "made money by carrying loyalists". Rebels finally imprisoned Sealey and ended his courier career by taking his horse. This Connecticut Yankee eventually made Maugerville, New Brunswick his home.

Benjamin Worth, a New Jersey loyalist, was "among those persons called express riders", serving with the British forces on Staten Island. (An express rider was a private mail carrier -- a forerunner of the pony express.) Before seeking sanctuary in Lower Canada, his final service to the crown was as a teamster, driving a wagon. When he sought compensation in Montreal in 1788, Margaret Martin, his only witness, testified that Worth had an "extraordinary good house" and remembered his "having horses".

This series on Loyalists and their Horses continues in next week's Loyalist Trails.


To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

Addendum: Horses, and Elias and Peter Snider

Last week Stephen noted:

Peter and Elias Snider, who found refuge in New Brunswick after the war, also missed having a good horse. In each of their compensation claims they mourned the loss of the prized mares they once rode in Pennsylvania. Loyalists who settled in the town of St. Stephen, New Brunswick would not see a horse in their coastal settlement until four years after the revolution ended.

From James G. Oborne:

I believe the Sniders later left for Ontario, north of Aldophustown in Quinte area-Mazinaw Lake, 65 miles north of Belleville near where my cottage (3 miles) is today. Here they built Snider Station with 100 horses under roof to support the logging industry on the lake. Confirmed by local Sniders still living there.

Ontario Licence Plate: Special Savings for Simcoe Day

Thank you for orders this week. Two plus weeks remain until Simcoe Day (Aug 7).

How do you celebrate Ontario's 150th Anniversary as one of the four original members of Canada's Confederation in 1867? If you live in the Greater Toronto Region perhaps you recognize the upcoming Civic Monday as Simcoe Day. You may remember the special centenary Ontario Licence Plate project that kicked off the 2014 celebrations. How many special plates do you recognize in the parking lot when you attend your branch meetings?

With less than 34 plates beginning with 02UE, you still have a chance to get a plate that you will remember and cause comments wherever you drive. SAVE: Until Gov. Simcoe Day you can save 30 dollars when you place your order. That means we will also ship your request FREE!

Take these 2 steps now:

• Email education@uelac.org with your preferred number chosen from the following: 18, 19, 23, 24, 26-29, 31, 32, 34, 36-38, 42, 47, 52-55, 59, 69, 72-73, 90-95, 97, 98.

• Send your cheque for $80.00 with this completed Licence Plates order form to the George Brown House office.

If you have already shown your support of this UELAC Project, thank you. Buy one as a special gift for a family member.

...Fred H. Hayward, UELAC Education Committee, education@uelac.org

Digitizing the Royal Archives: The Georgian Papers Programme

On September 28, 1833, Prince George FitzClarence, the oldest illegitimate son of King William IV of the United Kingdom, dined on soup, fish, chicken, and beef steak pie at Windsor Castle. On the same day, the housekeepers ate soup, duck, and leg of lamb, and the comptrollers had soup, mutton, and fillet of veal. Detailing the many, often meat heavy, dishes served to the Royal Family and the Royal Household from fall 1833 to spring 1835, this menu book is only one of the thousands of documents from the Royal Archives already uploaded to Georgian Papers Online as part of the Georgian Papers Programme. For historians of food, menu books such as this one can provide valuable insight into the food and diet of this period.

The goal of the Georgian Papers Programme, established by the Royal Archives in 2015 in partnership with King's College London, is to make the approximately 350,000 materials in the Royal Archives and the Royal Library from the Georgian period (1714--1837) fully available online for scholars and the general public. Karin Wulf, the director of the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, explained that the digitization project is important to early American scholarship because the Royal Archives is likely the "last great private archive" that can contribute knowledge about the American revolutionary period in significant ways.

Read more.

Mount Vernon: Lavish Lace: The Martha Washington Collection

In her youth, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington wore audacious yellow silks, purple slippers, and accessorized with glittering gems. Style was no stranger, and Martha proved a leader amongst the fashionable elite of Virginia. And she had the lace to prove it.

Portrait of Martha Dandridge Custis, John Wollaston, oil on canvas, 1757. Washington-Custis-Lee Collection, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA. [U1918.1.1]

Wearing very fine, imported European lace in eighteenth-century colonial America communicated bold statements that were easily and immediately decipherable: statements about one's position in society, wealth, and purchasing power.

Lace was the ultimate glamour accessory-- akin to sporting a Hermès Birkin bag today, or for a more timeless example, unabashedly draping one's self with ropes of diamonds.

So what is it about lace that is just so enduring? Some say it's analogous to a woman's essence -- her desirability and femininity -- her inherent worth, beautifully wrought, delicate and sensuous -- yet resilient. The New York Times declared lace a "trend watch" for 2016, a further pronouncement that lace is here to stay.

Let's take a look at how lace in the eighteenth century was the ultimate power accessory and how Martha Washington communicated personal values through her wearing of this exquisite art form.

Read more including:

  • Two techniques
  • Who made lace
  • On "Point" and For Power: The First Lace
  • Changes in lace trends
  • Popular Types of Lace in the Eighteenth Century
  • Laces in the Mount Vernon Collection
  • Learn from the Experts (videos)
  • Lace Fit for a Queen...or Martha Washington
  • Ipswich Lace: American Industry Meets Patriotic Pretty
  • Martha Washington's Shawl
  • Sources

Atlantic Loyalist Collections: The Abel Sands Mystery – A Case of Bastardy (Part One)

On September 6th of 1816, Abel Sands appeared in the Saint John County Court House as the alleged father of a bastard child with Ann Mickens. About 200 years later, this record was transcribed by a student assistant in the Microforms Unit---marking our very first encounter with Mr. Abel Sands. As you can probably tell by the chicken scratch handwriting pictured below, this first encounter was definitely not straightforward.

As I continued my work in these Court Records, I discovered that from 1816-1821, his case was the only bastardy case that appeared in the Saint John County Court Records. In a county full of assault and larceny, Abel Sands was a pretty big deal! Fatherless children would have likely cost the City a great deal of money. Women left with a child that was not rightfully acknowledged by the biological father depended on the City or their families for the financial support and maintenance of the child.

Read more.

JAR: Bite the Bullet: An Impressive Collection from the Mohawk Valley Campaign

By Daniel M. Sivilich on July 20, 2017

In Fort Plain, New York, I met up with an eighty-seven-year-old gentleman named Skip Barshied. Previously he had sent me a letter telling me of the large number of artifacts that he collected at the site of Fort Paris in Stone Arabia, New York, with a photograph of what appeared to be a large quantity of human-chewed musket balls. I have seen a great many private collections, but THAT got my attention.

Skip's collection includes many battle-related items such as impacted musket balls, grapeshot, hand grenade fragments and more, but he also has many artifacts related to daily life within the fort like lead pencils, whizzers, ceramic sherds, and much more.

These items are important in interpreting the activities of the people in the fort. However, as I mentioned earlier, there were twenty-six musket balls that appear to be chewed by humans. I have never seen that many associated with a single site. Some had deep impressions made by molars, but most appeared to have numerous canine and incisor teeth impressions.

Read more.

Rev War Talk: The Battle of Cowan's Ford

The Battle of Cowan's Ford was a battle in the Southern Theater of Cornwallis's 1780--1782 Campaign that eventually led to the British Army's surrender at Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War. It was fought on 1 February 1781 at Cowan's ford on the Catawba River in northwestern Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, between a force of about 5,000 British and fewer than a thousand Americans who were attempting to slow the British advance across the river. The American general William Lee Davidson was killed in this battle.

Read more.

Ben Franklin's World: The Making of the United States Constitution

Michael Klarman, the Kirkland & Ellis Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and author of The Founders' Coup: The Making of the United States Constitution, joins us to discuss the United States Constitution and how and why the framers drafted it.

During our exploration, Mike reveals the state of American governance just after the War for Independence; What caused the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to meet and discuss a new form of government; And, what issues the delegates debated and compromised on in order to create the Constitution of 1787.

Listen to the podcast.

Loyalist Gazette: Do You have a Story?

Do you have a (hi)story, perhaps about a member of your family, or about one of your ancestral families, or about an event centred around the American Revolution or the War of 1812 time frames. Perhaps a story about artifacts, or a geographical area settled primarily by Loyalists. Lots of possibilities.

Would you like to be published?

The Loyalist Gazette is a great publication in which to tell your story to an audience which focuses on that era.

Reach out to me anytime to discuss the opportunity.

For the Fall 2017 issue which should be mailed about November 1, the submission deadline - August 1 - is rapidly approaching.

If you have any ideas and interest, please get in touch and lets see if we can develop it.

...Bob McBride, UE, Editor of the Loyalist Gazette

Where in the World?

Where are Hamilton Branch members Fred Hayward, UE, and Pat Blackburn, UE?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is (if you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well). Send your submission to the editor at loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

Region and Branch Bits

From the UELAC branches, news and events of interest to others.

  • Betty Sewell UE. A 100th birthday approaches on July 29 for Betty who lives in Fredericton NB. She spent many years doing genealogy at the NB Archives and was an active UEL member. Betty was Genealogist at the Fredericton Branch UELAC from its founding in 1974 until 2000. She was bestowed an Honorary Lifetime Membership in the Associates of the Provincial Archives of NB. Betty jointly with Cleadie Barnett compiled a booklet: Sunbury County New Brunswick Marriage Records, 1766-1788. Note: if you know Betty and wish to do so, please drop by for the celebration, planned for Saturday July 29 in Betty's back yard. Submitted by daughter Linda Kennedy, at suggestion of nephew Darrell Sewell of Peterborough ON.
  • Plaque about the Atlantic Charter to be unveiled and dedicated at Toronto City Hall on Monday August 14, 4:30PM. The Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, Her Honour Elizabeth Dowdeswell, and Provincial and Civic officials, will officiate at the ceremony with Professor Peter Russell as guest speaker. Optional dinner (fee) to follow at the RCMI. In August 1941, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met with U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt in Placentia Bay, in Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter, which was drafted at the meeting, set out eight basic principles which would guide the construction of "The United Nations". More details
  • Colchester in the southwest corner of Ontario celebrates 225 years on July 29 with history and entertainment in a full day of fun-filled entertainment and the opportunity to learn more about the rich history of this lakeside village. Europeans first settled in Colchester in the 18th century. A number of United Empire Loyalists received land grants in the area during the American Revolutionary War and it was a destination for slaves escaping the U.S. via the Underground Railroad. More...
  • The sun porch of the Wallace and Area Museum (Nova Scotia) is gently lit by afternoon sunshine, yet with screens for walls and large trees providing shade, the porch remains cool on a July afternoon. The land on which the museum sits was settled by her ancestor, Peter Graham Tuttle, the youngest son of the United Empire Loyalist, Stephen Tuttle, whose family settled in Wentworth and Wallace. Read more...
  • Canada Day at Kings Landing, By Peter Conley. On a rainy July 1st in New Brunswick, members of the NB Branch celebrated Canada 150 at the Kings Landing Historical Settlement in Prince William, a community of Loyalist heritage on the banks of the Saint John River. About 20 folks, the majority being members and supporters of our Branch, heard our past president Deborah Coleman speak on the role of Loyalist women in their families and in 18th century American society. The talk was an extension of Coleman's recent work in writing the text of two interpretive panels now on display at the settlement in the Jones House Gallery, a beautiful brick home dating to the 1820s. One panel discusses maternal and infant mortality in the 19th century, and the other tells the story of Sara Love, a Quaker Bostonian who fled to the Maritimes after her husband was murdered during the Revolution. Rhona Hoyt, the Senior Exhibit Coordinator at Kings Landing, had first met Coleman at a Beaver Harbour gathering a few years back, and being impressed with her work, asked her for assistance with the new panels. Our Branch is pleased to have had one of our own contribute in such a way to a place very near and dear to so many New Brunswickers. Following the talk, members of the Branch and their friends headed off to the Kings Head Tavern for lunch, where the menu consisted of Salmon Chowder and Turkey Pot Pie. After dinner, we explored all the settlement has to offer, including a functioning mill, a village of family homes, farm animals, two churches, various businesses and a one-room school house. Reenactors dwell about, living the lives of their characters, engaging in cooking, farming, the trades and even militia drills. All buildings in the settlement date from the 1800s or earlier, and are visible reminders of the Loyalists and other immigrants who arrived in rural New Brunswick in the decades after the Revolution. The NB Branch would like to thank the Dominion Grant Committee for their support in providing $500 funding for transportation costs pertaining to the event. See photos...

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • I had an amazing find today and wanted to share it! I found the grave of Loyalist Benjamin McConnell. He died in 1808 and is buried at St. Peter's Cemetery at Weymouth North, Digby Co., NS. He was a native of N. Ireland, who came to America in 1765 and served with NJ Volunteers during American Revolution. In 1784 he came to Sissiboo River and settled in area. Photo of the gravestone. Video of the gravestone, cemetery and church by Brian McConnell UE
  • Today in History: Lars D.H. Hedbor @LarsDHHedbor (see his page for associated photos):
    • 22 Jul 1779 British-allied Mohawk Chief Brant defeats forces responding to his attack in Neversink Valley, New-York.
    • 21 Jul 1778 North-Carolina delegates sign the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.
    • 21 Jul 1775 Patriot forces destroy lighthouse in Boston Harbor, return in 10 days to defeat British repair team.
    • 20 Jul 1780 "Mad" Anthony Wayne leads failed assault on New-Jersey blockhouse, defended by Loyalists.
    • 19 Jul 1779 Massachusetts launches disastrous attack in modern-day Maine; worst naval defeat until Pearl Harbor.
    • 18 Jul 1776 Declaration of Independence read from the balcony of Boston Town Hall to great celebration.
    • 17 Jul 1776 Congress backs Washington's refusal to meet British peace mission because they didn't call him General.
    • 16 Jul 1779 "Mad" Anthony Wayne leads bayonet charge against British fortifications on Hudson, resulting in victory.
  • Townsend's: Questions and Answers, including a question about the potential toxins in whiskey.
  • Townsends: Kevin steps in for Jon this week, plus we have a special guest! A series of questions, answers too.
  • Why question the legacy of a dead king at Queen's Park? History records that Edward VII and his horse reached Toronto only after a circuitous journey. His statue was unveiled in Delhi, commemorating his passing as Emperor of India. Savouring its independence, India dumped the statue on Ontario --- home of the United Empire Loyalists --- which granted refuge to the king in 1969. Read more...
  • A peek at a new arrival at the museum - we're in awe of these 18th century shoes, complete with matching clogs! From Fashion Museum Bath (I assume England)
  • 18th Century Caraco/bodice (rear view), 1780s, France
  • Canada's constitutional monarchy, our fluke work of genius (Globe & Mail editorial)

Last Post

Jean Marilyn Johnston (née Stapleton), UE

(December 24, 1936 - July 14, 2017) Obituary.

Jean was born in Welland, Ontario, and raised in Hamilton. She is survived by her beloved husband of 57 years, Murray, as well as many much-loved nieces and nephews. Jean also leaves dear friends, Joan Martin, UE of Smithville, Rose and Ralph Carty of Hamilton, Anja Jokela of St. Catharines, and Irene and Ken Kadonaga of Cambridge, Ontario, as well as many highly regarded colleagues in the Retired Women Teachers' Association of St. Catharines. Jean was predeceased by her mother Marietta Stapleton (Clement), father Leslie Stapleton and four older Stapleton brothers, Douglas, John, Lloyd and Bruce.

Jean attended Westdale Secondary School in Hamilton and Hamilton Teachers' College. She taught for 35 years, finishing her career in St. Catharines and, upon retiring, was awarded Honorary Life Membership in the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario.

While teaching, Jean ran for public office in St. Catharines and was elected as Alderman for Grantham ward for two terms. She served on a number of local boards and commissions, as well as provincially.

Jean was a member of the Col. John Butler Branch of the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada and was proud of her family's military service to Canada. Three great grandfathers, Lewis Coles Clement, Adam Crysler, and James Clement fought as Butler's Rangers in the American War of Independence and James also served in the War of 1812. Jean's father served in the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery in the First World War, and her brother Douglas was killed during the Second World War while training to become a fighter pilot.

Jean was appreciative of the care she received from Sandra's Home Health Care and the doctors and nurses at St. Catharines General Hospital. Thanks to all the friends and neighbours who called and visited. Visitation was held at Pleasantview Funeral Home, 2000 Merrittville Hwy, Thorold, (289)650-1730 on Thursday, July 20th from 6:00-9:00 pm, and Friday July 21st from 10:00-11:00 am. A Celebration of Jean's life was held in the Pleasantview Chapel on Friday July 21st, 11:00 am, followed by interment at Pleasantview Memorial Gardens. In accordance with Jean's wishes cremation has already taken place. In lieu of flowers, please honour Jean's memory with donations to the Cystic Fibrosis Society of Canada, the CNIB, or The Salvation Army.

Colonel John Butler (Niagara) Branch members are saddened to report that long time, dedicated member Jean Johnston, UE passed away this week and send their deepest sympathy to Jean's husband Murray, their family and friends. Jean was a loyal member of the Branch rarely missing a meeting. She selected and sent out thoughtful get well & sympathy cards for the Branch over the years. She will be sincerely missed.

...Bev Craig, UE

Jean Girvin, UE

Jean passed away peacefully, at VON Sakura House in Woodstock on Wednesday, July 12, 2017 at the age of 79. Loving wife of the late Murray Girvin (2008). Caring mother of Bill Girvin (Betty), Steven Girvin (Mandy) and Julia Pagnan (Terry). Adoring grandmother and great grandmother of Rachel (Jody), Curtis (Rachel), Eric, Matthew, Alexander and Darwin. Also survived by her sister Janice Chmarney UE (Peter), sister-in-laws Frances Cooper, Colleen Girvin and Jean Dickinson, Aunts Ina Chamberlain and Kathleen Geady, Uncle Ron Dickinson (Margaret) and several nieces, nephews and cousins. Predeceased by her parents Lloyd and Lottie, son Michael Girvin, brothers Miles and Donley Dickinson, sister-in-law Bernice Thatcher and brother-in-law Dale Girvin.

Jean was an avid gardener in her spare time. She also loved to read, do needlework and was an expert at completing puzzles. Another passion was volunteering, over the years with many organizations.

Friends and relatives were received at Ostrander's Funeral Home, 43 Bidwell Street, Tillsonburg (519-842-5221) on Sunday, July 16, 2017 from 2:00 -- 5:00 p.m. Memorial donations to the Tillsonburg District Memorial Hospital Auxillary or LHSC would be appreciated by Jean's family.

Personal condolences can be made at www.ostrandersfuneralhome.com.

Colonel John Butler (Niagara) Brach UELAC are sad to announce the passing of Jean Girvin, UE, and offer deepest sympathy to her family and friends. A long time member of Colonel John Butler (Niagara) Branch UELAC, Jean was a very proud descendant of Loyalist Joseph Wardell. She will be truly missed.

...Bev Craig, UE

Queries

Iram Murray

He was born ca 1766. He is in Argyle, NY in 1790 Census, and buys and sells land between 1795-1806 in the Moreau, Saratoga County, NY area. Iram was in the war of 1812 with 29th Infantry under Captain Spencer, but too young for Revolutionary War.

From there he disappears.

I catch up to him in 1816 in a census of Adolphustown. He is only there one year. I understand that Adolphustown served as a holding place until inhabitants could find more permanent digs. Can anyone help me with this man that I have been researching for over 50 years.

...Nancy Robinson

Living Conditions for Refugees at Fort Niagara

Does anyone know of any resources that describe how the refugees at Ft. Niagara lived while they waited for the fighting to end? I haven't been able to find any records of their living conditions during the years, 1776-1780 or so. I have found written accounts of how the Indians surrounding the fort lived; the harsh 1779 winter and its affects on the Indians; I have accounts of prisoners being held at the fort, but no account of what type of shelter they were held in.

I also have written accounts of how Butler's Rangers built their barracks, but nothing about how and where they lived until that point.

I'm looking for accounts on the following:

• Where did the families from the New York Mohawk valley, and the Pennsylvania Susquehanna valley live - inside, outside, or in and out around Ft. Niagara?

• What type of shelter did they live in - government issued tents or self-made wigwams or inside the French castle someplace?

• How did they eat? Did they do communal meals, individual family meals, camp cook style like the soldiers, etc.

• What did they eat?

I have the listings for who received rations, but it seems those dates reflect their lives after many of them had built homes on the new government awarded plots after the Ft. days.

I've also seen accounts about how many refugees were sent on to other places in Canada to live, but where did they sleep and eat while they were waiting to leave?

I see that there is a Revolutionary war reenactment every June at Ft. Niagara. Perhaps there is a reenactment group you know of that I could consult?

I have asked for information from people at Ft. Niagara and I visited the fort in September of 2015, all the way from Chicago, but it seems that this information is not in their resources.

Thanks in advance for your help.

...Ellen Tiernan, Chicago

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