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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2014 Archive

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“Loyalist Trails” 2014-41: October 12, 2014

Articles

Eight Loyalist Scots in the Maritimes,by Stephen Davidson

In the years preceding the revolution, American loyalists were members of many different organizations. They enjoyed fellowship with others in Christian denominations, Masonic lodges, and college alumni associations. Some New York loyalists were members of the St. Andrew's Society, a Scottish charitable organization patterned on similar societies in London and Boston.

Although the St. Andrew's Society held no meetings during the American Revolution, their membership records allow us to discover the names of many of their loyalist brethren. Some of these loyal Scots remained in New York after 1783; others were among the 60,000 refugees who fled to find sanctuary under the British flag. These are the stories of eight who sought refuge in the Maritimes.

Although he was born in Virginia, Colonel Beverly Robinson's pride in his Scottish heritage prompted him to join New York's St. Andrew's Society. In 1756, he was a partner in the firm of De Lancey, Robinson & Co., selling European and Indian goods, as well as sugar, indigo, rice, and New York, Jamaica and West India rum. In 1759, he was Major under Wolfe at Quebec. Four years later, he became Commissary and Paymaster of the British forces in New York. Although he had been a personal friend of George Washington's, Robinson maintained his loyalty, raising the Loyal American Regiment and becoming its Colonel. His five sons were also loyalists.

Robinson was among those involved in returning Benedict Arnold to loyalty to the crown. He also pleaded --without success-- for a pardon when Major Andre faced execution for being a spy. After the war, Robinson initially went to Nova Scotia, but settled in New Brunswick where he became a member of the colony's first executive council. Colonel Robinson died at Thornbury, near Bath, England, April 9, 1792, at the age of 70 years.

At the beginning of the revolution, Col. Thomas Barclay joined Robinson's Loyal American regiment. He continued in active service for the next six years. At the close of the war he went with his family to Nova Scotia, having lost all of his estate in New York.

Along with soldiers from his regiment, Barclay and his brother-in-law, Beverly Robinson, formed a settlement "in the wildest part of Nova Scotia" at Wilmot's Woods. They remained there for several years, living in log cabins and enduring many hardships. Barclay eventually became a lawyer in Annapolis Royal. At the beginning of the French Revolution, he was called into active service, being appointed Colonel of the Nova Scotia Legion.

From 1796 till 1828 Barclay was employed under the Crown in civil stations of great trust and honour. He was a member and speaker of the Nova Scotia Assembly and an adjutant-general in the colony's militia. He was successively a commissioner under Jay's Treaty, British Consul-General for the Northern and Eastern States, and Commissary for the care and exchange of prisoners.

At the conclusion of the War of 1812 he was appointed Commissioner under the Treaty of Ghent. He died in New York April 21, 1830. On the north wall of the chancel of New York City's St. Paul's Chapel, there is a mural tablet to his memory.

William Pagan was born into a merchant family in Glasgow, Scotland, moving to New York to trade in the colonies. During the revolution he operated a dry goods business and was part owner of a privateer vessel. N 1780, he settled in Castine, Maine with his two brothers, Thomas and Robert.

William went to St. John, New Brunswick, after the Revolution and took a very active part in the government of that city and Province. He represented a ward of St. John in the first General Assembly of New Brunswick. Pagan was also a member of the Governor's Council. He was instrumental in the founding of the First Presbyterian Church in St. John, Saint Andrew's, and was one of the first elders of the church.

Pagan was also first president of the St. Andrew's Society of St. John, March 8, 1798, and seems to have had a knack for being first in most things, living a busy and useful life. He died a bachelor at Fredericton, March 12, 1819.

William Anstruther, fifth son of Sir Philip Anstruther, second Baronet of Balcaskie, Fifeshire, was born July 27, 1738. By the early 1770s he was on duty at the Battery in New York City. No doubt this is when Anstruther took the opportunity to join fellow Scots in the St. Andrew's Society. He later helped to defend Fort St. Jean, and when rebels captured it, he became their prisoner. Anstruther and his regiment were sent to Reading, Pennsylvania, where he remained until exchanged.

By 1779, he was put in command at Bermuda. While there he busied himself begging Sir Guy Carleton and others for military appointments for his two sons. One of them, Philip, was then at school in Glasgow. He stated that he was an unfortunate old officer who had to purchase every step of his promotion and had "losed" his limbs or the use of them in the war, and, moreover, had lost three brothers and great property in lands, so that his sons had nothing to expect from their "much reduced father." At the conclusion of the war he retired to St. Andrews, Charlotte County, New Brunswick. Colonel Anstruther died in the year 1805 and his widow, Isabella McLeod, survived him until January 1836.

William Reid, a cooper and farmer of Scottish descent, lived in East Chester, New York. His home became alternately the prey of British and rebel forces. After his house and farm were seized by the Americans, they were returned to him as the British approached. Nevertheless, his hay, cider, rum and molasses were appropriated. In 1777, the rebels seized his horses, oxen, hogs, rum, and wheat.

Having had enough of this sort of treatment, Reid joined the British at White Plains when the army reached there. For six months, he acted as a Refugee Light Horseman in DeLancey's corps. Afterwards, he resided in New York where he acquired leasehold property that was rented out. At the close of the war, he moved to Horton, Nova Scotia.

Alexander Leckie was a large dry goods importer chiefly of English and Scottish goods. In 1778, he did business at New York's Queen Street, then Dock Street and finally at Hanover Square where he remained to the close of the war. Leckie joined the city's Chamber of Commerce on February 4, 1783. It was a position the loyalist would only be able to enjoy for a matter of months. Being a Loyalist, he had to leave New York, finding refuge in Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Six years later, he became a member of the provincial house of assembly.

Dunbar Sloan is an example of a Scottish loyalist who eventually returned to New York City. Immediately following the revolution, Sloan's loyalist principles led him to settle in Barbadoes, but not liking the climate, he moved north to Halifax. For several years, he carried on an iron business on Lower Water Street and became a member of the North British (Scotland) Society of Halifax. Later, he returned to New York and re-established himself in business. Ten years after the end of the revolution, the loyalist Scot was selling dry goods; by 1822 he had a farm on the east bank of New Jersey's Passaic River. Sloan died in New York, November 13, 1836 at 82 years of age after a lingering illness.

Captain John McKenzie was a St. Andrew's Society member who was master of the ship Inverness, which, in March of 1776, was seized and burnt in the river Savannah. Lorenzo Sabine, in his loyalist biographies, states that McKenzie commanded a vessel engaged in transportation of supplies for the British troops. At the revolution's end, he settled in Nova Scotia, and died in Liverpool in that colony in 1825. Five children survived him.

It is interesting to note that none of these eight loyal Scots decided to settle in Nova Scotia's new Scottish immigrant settlements, Pictou and New Glasgow. Instead, they made their homes in communities comprised of American colonists who had shared the trials and tribulations of the revolution. In the end, the experience of being loyalist refugees was stronger than the ties that bound these men to Scotland.


To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

Loyalists in Digby and the Old Loyalist Cemetery, by Brian McConnell

A reminder of the Loyalist heritage in southwestern Nova Scotia is a sign in Digby, near the corner of Warwick Street and First Avenue, marking the "Old Loyalist Cemetery, 1783".

After the American Revolution, in early May and October of 1783 over 1,200 United Empire Loyalists arrived on ships from New York and were settled in Conway Township. The Town was named Digby after Admiral Robert Digby who was responsible for the transportation of the Loyalists.

Among the known Loyalists who are buried in the Old Loyalist Cemetery are members of the Holdsworth and Smith families. These and others laid to rest there appear on the list attached as Appendix 'A'.(1) Loyalists of the Town and area were also buried in "Trinity" Cemetery around that Anglican Church and many in private graveyards on farms.

The history of the Old Loyalist Cemetery dates back to the settlement of the Town of Digby. After taking the Oath of Allegiance, all Loyalists were able to purchase a town lot. Since these lots were considered improved they had to be purchased. (2) Free grants of land in the surrounding Township were available, with the size depending on the military rank of the head of the household and 50 additional acres for each family member and servant. The average size of rural lots was 200 acres.

Read more about the Loyalist settlement in Digby (PDF), some of the individual Loyalists and as an appendix, a list of people buried in the Old Loyalist Cemetery.

...Brian McConnell, UE, Nova Scotia Branch

Who Owned the Adirondacks After the Revolutionary War?

After the Revolution, American settlers set about taking over native lands as the spoils of war. By 1794 the Caughnawagas threatened settlers in northern New York over land ownership. On May 31, 1796, after negotiating claims against the State of New York, the reservation of Akwesasne on the New York border with Quebec formed. [Editor's note: Further expansion of the snippet in last week's Twitter snippet: “In late September 1775, George Washington writes MA General Court to introduce an Oneida chief who arrived at the Continental Army encampment. Good short article describing the Oneida, Six Nations, Loyalists and Rebels with a focus on the first, from the George Washington Mount Vernon website.”]

During the American Revolution, American soldiers returned from expeditions into native country with stories of the rich lands awaiting them once independence was won. With the Peace of Paris (1783) under their belts, Americans now set about taking over Native American lands as the spoils of war. Peace initiated a new era of land speculation and unleashed a new land rush into native country.

Over the course of the war diplomacy changed. James Duane, Chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs in the Continental Congress and Mayor of New York City from 1784 to 1789, urged the United States not to continue the British practice of cultivating relations with the Indians as if they were nations of good standing. The Six Nations should be treated as dependents of the State of New York. They should adopt American diplomatic protocol, not vice versa. "Unless the United States seized the opportunity to implement this new hard-line approach", said Duane, "this Revolution in my eyes will have lost more than half its value". American treaty commissioners followed Duane's advice and dispensed with wampum belts and elaborate speakers.

"At the beginning of the war", General Schuyler said, "he had asked the Six Nations to sit still and they had not listened". Now like the Loyalists, they had forfeited their lands. He told them that the British deceived them if they told them they were included in the peace. The general declared, "The treaty does not contain a single stipulation for the Indians, they are not even so much as mentioned. We are now Masters of this Island, and can dispose of the lands as we think proper or most convenient to ourselves." Six Nation delegates listened in bewilderment.

In 1784 Schuyler interceded on the behalf of the Oneidas, and Congress guaranteed the territorial integrity of their Oneida and Tuscarora allies at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. In 1789 the United States further confirmed the guaranties at Fort Harmar, and in 1794 at Canandaigua and Oneida.

Native American representation at treaties, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, became partial at best. The Americans exploited and aggravated intra-tribal divisions. Six Nation people denounced their delegates who returned home from Fort Stanwix, and the Six Nations in council at Buffalo Creek refused to ratify a treaty made under such duress. Western Indians became furious at the Six Nations for making a treaty without consulting them.

By 1846 the State of New York had negotiated a string of twenty-six treaties with the Oneidas, for the most part illegal under the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790, robbing the Oneidas of their entire homeland.

In the winter of 1794-1795, Caughnawaga delegates traveled to Albany to argue, that as long ago as the old French regime, they had a right to land far below the St. Lawrence. They asserted, that through an ancient Iroquois concept (the dish with one spoon) of common native ownership, the Mohawk, Oneida and Onondaga nations co-owned hunting grounds. They declared that when they went to their present homes near Montreal, they never left their premises. They gave their claim specific boundaries -- roughly, about half of northern New York, from the headwaters of the Hudson to the headwaters of Canada Creek and the Black and Oswagatchie Rivers -- and they complained that Americans had settled illegally on this land.

Due to the troubles in the Ohio country, nervous Americans became so eager to placate all Native Americans that New York State gave the Caughnawaga delegates a royal welcome and appointed commissioners to confer with them. In the fall of 1795, a second meeting took place between the New York Commissioners and the Caughnawaga delegation. By then the situation in the Northwest Territory had calmed down. The New York Commissioners told the delegates that they had never heard of their claim before. Some of the country, they asserted, especially the country bordering Lake Champlain, must have been given up to the French, since the French had long ago granted it out. The New Yorkers then offered the Indians a mere three thousand dollars for their claim. The Caughnawagas refused the offer and returned home.

In late spring of 1796 the New York commissioners and the Caughnawagas met for a third time. All winter the New Yorkers researched the issue and came up with an additional argument to support their cause. They based their denial of the claim on the two 999 year Lessee Company deeds of November 1787 and July 1788. These deeds proved that the Six Nations considered the land in question theirs and not the Caughnawagas. Before three New York commissioners and a representative sent by President Washington, the unhappy Caughnawagas gave up all their claims against the State of New York except a small reservation six miles square at Akwesasne (St. Regis). They received in return a one-time payment of approximately 1233 Pounds and an annuity of some 213 Pounds. On May 31, 1796, the Caughnawagas signed the agreement.

Ten months after the Caughnawagas surrendered all their claims to the State of New York, the Mohawks went to Albany and gave up all their claims against the state. Governor John Jay gave the Caughnawagas a copy of the 1797 Mohawk treaty. In 1798, the Caughnawagas again threatened war. The authorities in Canada, formerly thinking the affair but a trifle, took alarm. They called on Sir John Johnson to intervene. The outcome turned out surprisingly tame. The Caughnawagas declared they had not made the accusations of themselves but only because of what the New York commissioners had told them. They admitted they had been listening to bad advice and ceased their threats. In time the Caughnawagas could blame all their troubles on the Mohawk treaty of 1797. They would wait another 15 years until the War of 1812.

...G. William Glidden, Registered Historian, APHNYS. North Country Historian

Fall Fleet with a Flourish: Highlight of a President's Weekend

Pacific Regional Fall Fleet, October 5 - "Celebrating Our Centennial 1914-2014"

It began with an invitation in June of 2013 and ended with a flourish on Sunday, October 5, 2014. Our Fall Fleet weekend in Vancouver BC gave us a sneak preview of the warm welcome awaiting UELAC members next year in Victoria BC when 'Loyalists Come West' for the 2015 Conference and AGM.

...Bonnie Schepers, UE

Pacific Region Celebrates UELAC Centenary and Fall Fleet

The Pacific Region celebrated the UELAC 100th Anniversary (1914-2014) and the Arrival of the Fall Fleet at Queen's Park, New Westminster, BC, Sunday 05 October 2014.

The Pacific region celebrated the landing of the Fall Fleet of Loyalist ancestors in New Brunswick (1783) at their recent event. Dominion President Bonnie Schepers UE and her husband Albert Schepers attended the event. The Pacific Region also marked the 100th Anniversary (1914-2014) of the United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada receiving its Charter from the Federal Government in 1914.

The event was largely attended by members of all four UELAC branches of British Columbia. Ceremony, Pomp and Circumstance was the order of the day with Alex Galloway piping in the Colour Party, followed by Toasts and a scrumptious catered luncheon. Pacific Regional Vice President, Diane Faris UE introduced the Head Table and M/C for the Programme, Carl Stymiest UE who welcomed members and guests to the Fall Fleet/ 100th Anniversary Celebrations.

After lunch, the programme continued with Dominion President Bonnie Schepers UE delivering a wonderful message in her speech, "History, Heroes, and Hope for the Future." Marlene Dance UE, Pacific Regional Counsellor presented a gift and gave an emotional "Thank You" to Bonnie. Following the Dominion President, was Dr. Peter Moogk UE, editor and compiler of the 2014 Project Anniversary Celebratory Book. The Book launch was received well as indicated with the selling-out of the First Printing of Moving Ever Westward: Loyalist Descendants Come to British Columbia. Peter Moogk presented the first two books to President Bonnie Schepers, one for her personal use and one for the UELAC Dominion Library. Mary Anne Bethune UE thanked Peter for all his work over the past 3 years on the book. She also presented Peter with a special "Thank You" gift.

As always when a Dominion President visits our region, we had several UE certificate presentations to the Vancouver and Chilliwack Branches. It is such a delight and Honour to receive your UE Certificate from the Dominion President.

Mary Anne Bethune UE, Chairperson Vancouver Branch Phillip E M Leith Volunteer Memorial Award was presented to this year two recipients: Dr. Gerry Brown, UE of the Vancouver Branch and Maralynn Wilkinson, UE of the Victoria Branch. Pacific Regional Vice President, Diane Faris UE, Mary Anne Bethune UE, Chairperson of the Award, and Dominion President Bonnie Schepers UE presented medallions, Certificates and the Leith Trophy to this year's recipients. (Photo of past and present recipients.)

The day ended with the awarding of the many Door Prizes and Lucky Draw items. The winner of the Vancouver Branch 2015 FREE Membership Drive was Leslie Hammond. The Programme and event finished with the Retirement of the Colour Party.

...Carl Stymiest UE, Past President Vancouver Branch

Sir Guy Carleton Branch Library

The foundation of the Sir Guy Carleton Branch library was the private book collection of Dr. Velma Rust, at one time the Branch genealogist. When she died in 2000 she left approximately 400 books to the Branch. In 2001 an agreement was reached with the City of Ottawa Archives to locate the Sir Guy Carleton Branch Library at the City Archives.

The Sir Guy Carleton library collection has grown to over 800 books and 27 periodical titles. It also includes two CDs; Carleton's Loyalist List including the Book of Negroes which lists those evacuated from New York in 1783, and an index to the 1786 McNiff Maps of Lancaster, Charlottenburgh, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Williamsburgh and Matilda (the Loyalist Maps). A Finding Aid can be found at the front of the Research Room. There are also a few Loyalist books in the collections of BIFHSGO and Ottawa Branch, OGS, and documents in the vaults of the City Archives. These are included in the Finding Aid at the front of the Research Room. The complete collection listing is available on the Sir Guy Carleton Branch website.

Visit Loyalist Research Resources for more.

...Dorothy Meyerhof, Librarian, Sir Guy Carleton Branch

The Long And Winding Road

A reference to an old Beatles song title seems apt in describing our long journey towards getting 'better press' for the Loyalists. I know many people in the SAR and DAR and I've found them to be very friendly and several are quite willing to acknowledge that they have a Loyalist ancestor or two along with their Rebel ones. Certainly a generation or two ago it would not have been admitted.

Nevertheless two current television shows remind us that there is still a long road ahead. The first was Henry Louis Gates Jr.'s Finding Your Roots with the Ken Burns episode on October 7th. It is well known that Ken Burns is a highly regarded filmmaker. Even a short look at his Civil War series makes it clear why he is respected. In the Roots broadcast he discovered that he had not only ancestors on both sides of the Civil War but ancestors on both sides of the Rev War. His Rebel was a doctor of some distinction, but his Loyalist was Eldad Tupper from Massachusetts. Astonishingly, although Ken Burns was not happy to uncover a slave-owning ancestor, he was far more "ashamed" to find a "Tory" in his ancestry. Apparently a slave-owning ancestor ranks higher than a Loyalist in his view. Let's hope he doesn't make a documentary about the Rev War!

The other show is part of a CNN series where various broadcasters uncover their past. Broadcaster Jake Tupper journeyed north to Hay Bay and the Research Centre and Park at Adolphustown. This put his ancestor Solomon Huff in the thick of Loyalist settlement, (although technically Solomon has not been proven to be a UE). Despite that he was also had to come to terms with having a second generation Huff who fought on the British side in 1812. We'll have to wait and see what this show reveals on the 14th of October, but the online advertisement refers to his "traitors who went to Canada" so that could be a warning.

The job is not done.

...Peter W. Johnson, UE, Bay of Quinte Branch

The Loyalist Gazette

The Loyalist Gazette, a printed periodical published semi-annually in Spring and Fall by The UELAC for more than fifty years, brings information about the Loyalists and the Association. It expands our Loyalist-era history with articles about Loyalists and reviews of books about the period and the people who lived it. Other pieces describe current activities which promote our history or the association, be they by individuals, branches or others.

All members as individuals or as families are entitled to a copy of each issue as part of their membership in a Branch of UELAC. Others may subscribe. Past issues can be purchased. For more information, see Loyalist Publications.

Region and Branch Bits: Pacific Region

From the UELAC Branches, news and events of interest to others:

May 28-31, 2015, join us in Victoria BC as 'Loyalists Come West'. We'll be waiting for you. Photo of the harbour.


Attention programme coordinators in the greater Hamilton, and Niagara area; lining up speakers for the spring of 2015? Consider our new presentation (yet to be entitled) that looks at the American Revolution as a civil war and a precursor to the War of 1812. The discussion considers the issues around liberty and freedom, the implications of key battles (Oriskany and Saratoga), the Loyalist raids, and the atrocities of the war. But it goes further as it develops the idea of land ownership vs. land stewardship and how that issue impacted the participant groups of the war; the Patriot, the Loyalist and Haudenosaunee (Six Nations). Building on their previous presentation "The Battle of Beaver Dams; Uncommon Courage", Doug Massey UE and Keith Clark, a Son of the American Revolution, are joined by Lee Claus who, with his Mohawk roots, adds another perspective to the team who will deliver this thought-provoking and informative session.

If interested, please contact Doug Massey at dmassey8@sympatico.ca

Where in the World?

Where are Albert Schepers and David and Barbara Hongisto?

To participate, submit a photo of yourself in UELAC promotional gear at a place of some note and tell us where it is. If you are a member of a branch, please indicate that as well – send to Jennifer Childs.

From the Twittersphere and Beyond

  • A letter from James Lovell to Josiah Quincy, Jun. in Oct 1774. How the intrigues swirled in Boston, and afield, even to England. "Gracious Providence Has Been Pleased to Mark Down for Us Some Later Date" [Dr. Joseph Warren blog]
  • See the short animation of the times setting the stage for Yorktown "Now or Never" from Washington's Library, Mount Vernon.
  • Small shovels await official groundbreaking for the $100+ million Museum of the American Revolution being constructed in Philadelphia, opening in 2016
  • Church in Fall River MA seeks to rehabilitate bell made by Paul Revere's company.
  • The Brome County Historical Society (eastern Townships, Quebec) is taking under its wing a 200-year old house called the Paul Knowlton House. It is being moved this month. See progress (check the details for Oct 2014 for more photos and details). Was Paul Knowlton a Loyalist, or SUE?
  • So much one could learn if one could be there. On Oct 16, the Fort Plain Museum (close to Fort Klock on the Mohawk River) hosts John Anson, an Interpretative Historian specializing in Artillery. He will make an audio-visual presentation on "Cannon Manufacturing in the 18th Century and Now." He developed the Documentation and Patterns used by the National Park Service for Artillery to be fired and displayed during the American Bicentennial.

Additions to the Loyalist Directory

As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:

    • Appleby, James Sr and sons Benjamin, Peter, James, Hendrick, David and Lucas - from Linda Drake with certificate application
    • Appleby, John from Linda Drake with certificate application
    • Ebbett, Joseph added (and several others updated) - from Charlotte Ayers
    • James, Benjamin - from Linda Drake
    • Ostrom, Roelof - from Brenda Ozog with certificate application
    • Wanamaker, Henry - from Linda Drake
    • Wanamaker, Richard - from Linda Drake
    • Whitney, Sarah - from Linda Drake
    • Williams, Jonathan - from Sue Hines

    Please help us build the directory by contributing more information for it. Contact loyalist.trails@uelac.org for instructions and guidance.

Queries

Response re Counting Generations Canadian

Regarding generations in Canada. I always thought that I was a seventh generation Canadian. My father's paternal family came to what is now Quebec in 1806. His maternal family came earlier as Loyalists. My mother's family came from Scotland in 1820. I have my father's passport for 1943 and although he was born in Quebec his national status is listed as " British subject by birth".

...Adelaide Lanktree, UE, Sir John Johnson Branch

Looking For The Loyalist Trail; Codner is the Possibility

Family lore suggests that I have some Loyalist ancestry. I would like to dig deeper.

My grandmother was Mary Julia Codner, born March 23,1878, Saint John, N.B., died May 23, 1967, Toronto, Ontario. She married William Lilley, born 1876 or 1877 in London, England; died Feb.1,1936 in Toronto.

They had 4 children:

- Arthur Lilley,

- Mary Lilley Martin,

- Ethel Lilley Nurse,

- George Edward Borden Lilley (Born July 22,1912 in St.John, N.B.)

When my grandmother Mary married William, they had a restaurant called The Golden Ham in Saint John.

My father Borden said that the family came through Houlter Junction in Maire? (part of St. John)? to Ketepec, Milledgeville.

[Editor's Note: There is in the Loyalist Directory a Jas Codner, Ensign 2d Am Regt, who settled in Saint John NB]

If anyone has family information or can point me, I would be most interested in exploring my Loyalist roots.

...Merla McMurray

Zach Davis

Zach Davis came to Nova Scotia with his brother John. Both had served with the Duke of Cumberland's regiment, and each was given 100 acres in 1783(?) in the area of Canso, it appears. As far as we know, they appeared to have stayed in that area and did not migrate again. Zach or Zackeous married a Hannah Reynolds.

I am looking for more information about Zach and his family, with a special interest in Zach's military service and his former home in the thirteen colonies before the war.

...Robert MacDougall

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