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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2012 Archive

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"Loyalist Trails" 2012-11: March 18, 2012

Articles

Tales of the Lost Slaves: Part Two -- by Stephen Davidson

While much of loyalist history has been neglected or forgotten, it has been encouraging to note the rediscovery of many of its lost chapters -- those that deal with the role of women or black loyalists. However, even more neglected than these stories is the history of the men and women who were enslaved by the loyalists but who did not leave the Thirteen Colonies.

Most of these enslaved Africans were taken from loyalists during the Revolution, becoming the property of the rebel victors. Some ran away only to be made slaves once again after the war. There are two accounts of Africans who simply refused to follow their loyalist masters.

When John Pugsley sought compensation from the Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists (RCLSAL), he reported the loss of a slave he "was forced to leave behind". Speaking of this African, the New York loyalist said that "He would not come to Nova Scotia".  Although Pugsley included his slave along with the cow, horses and wheat that he had taken from him during the Revolution, it is clear that this "chattel" chose to be "lost".

Charles Vincent, a Dutchess County loyalist, encountered the same strength of will. Before the Revolution, Vincent's father had given him a "Negroe Wench and Boy".  When his neighbours discovered that he was a loyalist, they persecuted Vincent and drove him from home. As the loyalist's wife gathered up the family's belongings to follow him, their African slave "would not come away" and so Mrs. Vincent left her behind.

The turmoil of the Revolution sometimes offered Africans these rare opportunities to escape slavery. Africans enslaved by rebels could earn their emancipation by serving the British, but no such opportunities for freedom were provided for those enslaved by loyalists. The only exception to this hard truth was the case of loyalists' slaves in Massachusetts.

Benjamin Marsten of Marblehead reported that while he could not recall any general act of emancipation for loyalists' slaves within Massachusetts, he knew that "those Negroes only were liberated who would take up arms". It was a small chance for freedom; better than none at all.

John Fowler of Stockbridge, Massachusetts testified that his slave Peter was "seized by the Committee and set at liberty." Adam Walker of Worcester thought that the rebels had "enfranchised all the negroes belonging to Loyalists". He lost three slaves in this way. One, a skilled blacksmith that Walker valued at 100, was "set at liberty by the state". The loyalist also lost two African women who were "set free by the State after the claimant went away".

Denied emancipation, loyalists' slaves did more than work in the fields or the homes of their well-to-do masters. The transcripts of the RCLSAL reveal stories of sacrifice and service.

Dr. Archibald Campbell of Norfolk, Virginia told how "a negroe, his own property, was killed serving the British." Gideon Palmer "lost a Negroe Man" who enlisted in the Queen's American Rangers. Given the name of Prince by his master, this African man "died in service". It is sad to reflect that the sacrifice of these two African lives did nothing to free their families or help the British cause. In the end, their loyalist masters were able to claim their loss as part of financial compensation packages.

When rebel soldiers came to Norfolk, Virginia, they took an African woman and two children from the loyalist Neil Jamieson. In his testimony to the RCLSAL, Jamieson told how one of his African slaves "was shot when bringing off things" for the family. Matthew Elliot, a Pennsylvania loyalist, had goods, horses, and a slave taken by Native Americans. A year later the African was killed as he tried to escape his captors and return to Elliot. John Lightenstone told the RCLSAL that he had been robbed of ten African slaves. Three died of natural causes and two were "drowned making their escape from the Rebels".

Rebel hatred of their loyalist neighbours was often directed at their slaves. When Soirle Macdonald testified before the RCLSAL in Halifax in 1786, he reported that rebels had taken an African man and two women from his North Carolina home. "One of the negroe Women was so ill-used as to have died of wounds she received and of ill Treatment".

Rebels were no less cruel to the slave of Solomon Fowler. Sarah, Fowler's widow, told the Halifax commissioners that patriots "took away a Negroe, they used him very ill and beat him. He got away and got home and died in three weeks." Mrs. Fowler attributed her African's death to his treatment by the rebels. At the same board hearing, Richard Stanton of New Jersey testified that patriots took his African slave. "He tried to run away and was shot".

In reading the transcripts of the RCLSAL, it is hard to detect the emotions behind these reports. Did the loyalist refugees mourn the loss of their African slaves as one might regard the death of beloved pet, the loss of valued property, or with affection toward a faithful servant? Whatever the emotions, the fact that these losses are recorded in the transcripts at all means that the loyalists hoped to be compensated in cash for what rebels took from them.

John and William Brown of Norfolk, Virginia reported their losses as so many faceless statistics that were lost due to trade regulations. These loyalist brothers were slave traders who transported twenty Africans worth 1000 from Jamaica to Virginia in 1774. Unbeknownst to them, a resolution had been passed in Virginia which banned the importation of Africans because they were considered British goods. A rebel committee ordered the Brown brothers to "send the ship and cargo back again. She returned to the West Indies. The Negroes suffered so much that some died. Others suffered greatly."

While some loyalists' slaves died in service or for no good reason, there were those whose labour was hired out during the Revolution. Their stories will be told next week.


To secure permission to reprint this article, email Stephen Davidson.

Freedom Bound, by Jean Rae Baxter, Describes Lost Slaves

Stephen Davidson's article "Tales of the Lost Slaves: Part One" in the March 13 issue of Loyalist Trails examines the very subject I deal with in my new young adult novel Freedom Bound (Ronsdale Pres, February 2012). Here is a brief section where the young Loyalist woman has just arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, from the "Upper Country." A Loyalist officer, member of a local slave-owning family, explains the situation as he sees it.

They were passing a stately building with an open portico, two tall pillars flanking the door. Chained to one of the pillars was a black man. His back was bare, and he was being whipped. His head hung to one side, and he made no sound that Charlotte could hear, although she was near enough to hear the whoosh of the lash and the smack as it struck his skin. Blood welled from the open cuts. A dozen or so spectators--black and white--stood watching.

She stopped walking. Once, on the Blossom, she had seen a sailor being flogged, but not with such ferocity. The man wielding the whip had his teeth bared in a savage grin. He's enjoying this, Charlotte thought, and she shuddered.

"Come away," Captain Braemar said. "You don't want to watch this." When he tugged her arm gently, she yielded and they walked on.

"What could that poor man have done to deserve such punishment?"

"Most likely he's a runaway. One hundred lashes for correction." He spoke as if explaining something to a child, bending his head toward her to be sure she heard. "He's getting off lightly. Sometimes they tie a nail to the whip."

"It's horrible."

"Yes ma'am. It is horrible. And it's a horror we brought upon ourselves."

"You mean, slavery?"

"I'm not against slavery. The prosperity of South Carolina depends on it. We couldn't grow rice and indigo without slaves to do the work."

"You could hire people, couldn't you?

"Costs too much. And you wouldn't find many white men who'd want to do it. No, ma'am, the slave system is the only one that will work in the South. And it worked well until British policymakers hatched the idea that we could hurt the rebels by offering freedom to their slaves. All a slave had to do was stay behind British lines for one year, helping the military. At the end of the year, he'd be granted a General Birch Certificate. Owning that certificate makes him a free man."

"It sounds to me like a good idea."

"Too good, as it's turned out. Word spread from one plantation to the next. Thousands of runaway slaves flocked to every town behind British lines. Most didn't know which side their owner was on. All they heard was 'Freedom.'"

"Who can blame them?"

"I can't say I do blame them. The problem is, only slaves owned by rebels qualify for a General Birch Certificate. If the owner is a Loyalist, we send his slaves right back to him. That makes them angry. Many refuse to carry out their duties, or perform them poorly. So their owners must use harsh measures to keep them in line."

...Jean Rae Baxter UE, Hamilton Branch

Samuel Carman (1782 - 1864) © George McNeillie

A few words may now be said of the members of my Grandfather's family, who were all born in the old home in Lower St. Mary's.

Aunt Sara Ann, the next of the family was said to have had many admirers in her young days, but died unmarried. She was fond of company, more especially of young company, and I can well recall the ingenuous way in which she would sometimes seat herself beside some young couple who were having a bit of a flirtation and say, "I thought I would just come and see what you were having such a good time about." Perhaps she was wanting in tact, but she was a generous soul. She taught school for years in St. Mary's and afterwards at Woodstock and in the vicinity, and placed her savings at the disposal of the family. After the little cottage was built at "Fern Hill" she lived there with her brother Samuel and sister Fanny until 1898, when, her sister having died, she came with her brother Samuel to make her home with Aunt Mary Carman, being too infirm to live alone. She passed to her rest at the ripe age of 84 years and was buried in the old parish churchyard in Woodstock beside the river.

Richard, the third of the family, was rather an "odd fish." In early life he belonged to a troop of cavalry. During the so-called "Aroostook war" in 1839 (sometimes termed "the war of pork and beans") the cavalrymen, or videttes, patrolled the Upper St. John, carrying dispatches between Fredericton and the territory in dispute. Richard married Sarah Elizabeth Dockrill, daughter of Benjamin Dockrill, and her father gave her his farm in Lower St. Mary's, where they lived for many years and where their children were born. Their family is now widely scattered and we have lost touch with them.

There were three sons, William Jeffrey, Richard Henry and James Herbert, and four daughters, Mary M. Louise, Florence Elizabeth, Fanny Dockrill and Catherine Reid. Louise, the oldest of the family was about my own age -- the youngest, "Kate" was born in 1876. I remember that Florence Elizabeth, the third of the family, was a remarkably fine girl.

The second of the family, William J., learned the drug business. He was a "handy fellow," and was a great reader of books, fond of practical jokes (as was his father), had considerable natural ability, was "everything by starts, and nothing long." For a little while he helped my father in working at the new church in Stanley. Poor Will! I often think kindly of him.

The Rev. C.W. Dockrill, a brother of Uncle Dick's wife, was a Methodist Minister. His relatives for some reason were incensed at his marriage into a certain family. Why I do not know! Hearing from Will Carman (my cousin) that Mr. Dockrill had lost his wife I ventured to intimate that perhaps the loss of the wife would improve the family relations, seeing that the Dockrills disliked the choice Mr. Dockrill had made. He said it would certainly not improve family relations, for his Reverend uncle, to make bad worse, had married his first wife's sister!

Richard Henry, the fifth of Uncle Richard's family, I believe is now living at Lower Devon, opposite the Cathedral in Fredericton -- the only member of the family living in the old neighbourhood.

Excerpt from Book of Family History, by The Ven. William Odber Raymond, LL.D, FRSC. © 2009 George McNeillie - all rights reserved [published here with permission; see footnote].

...George McNeillie

"Vignettes of Winnipeg: Past and Present": The Manitoba Club - 94 Broadway

The Manitoba Club was the first private men's club in Western Canada. On July 16th, 1874, a group of businessmen, politicians, and military leaders met at a restaurant and formed a men's club designed to offer a more dignified meeting place than the pool-halls and watering-holes then available in the newly incorporated city of Winnipeg.

Merchant Andrew McDermot offered the use of a room in his block, Red River Hall at Main and Lombard.

Charter members included the leaders of business such as merchant A.G.B.Bannatyne, bankers Gerald McMicken and Henry T. Champion, High Sheriff Colin Inkster, and Lieutenant Colonel William Osborne Smith, who was elected first president.

In 1881 the Club built a free-standing club-house on Garry Street between Portage and Graham. Members in the 1880s and 1890s included William Alloway, the major private banker in Western Canada, Daniel McMillan, later Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba, and lawyer Hugh John Macdonald, premier of Manitoba in 1900.

In 1902 the club bought three lots from the Hudson's Bay Company between Fort and Main Streets. An impressive red-brick building was constructed and officially opened by Governor General Earl Grey in 1905.

This new building housed spacious rooms for dining, business meetings, reading, cards, and billiards.

Membership grew in the boom years of the early twentieth century. In 1909 an east-wing was added and in 1930 a south-west wing, bringing the club to its present dimensions.

Over the years the Manitoba Club has hosted such prominent figures as Mark Twain, William Tecumseh Sherman ( who may have been bested at billiards by local shark Hugh John Macdonald), and Princes of Monaco, Iraq, and Iran. Every prime minister since the 1940s has been a guest.

For many decades the Manitoba Club steadfastly resisted female membership. To read today the rationales for female exclusion is to gain insight into an age when a premier of Manitoba could call suffragettes "hyenas in petticoats "without creating a scandal.

Women were admitted to full membership in 1979 without the crumbling of a single red brick.

Today the Manitoba Club remains a bastion of Edwardian elegance, and houses an impressive collection of paintings, many of local historical interest. The collection began with gifts from William Alloway, founder of the Winnipeg Foundation. The Club maintains an annual budget for new acquisitions.

Take a look at these paintings when the Manitoba Club hosts the delegates of the Dominion Conference at a luncheon on Friday, June 8th, 2012.

Source: Street of Dreams: The Story of Broadway-Marjorie Gillies.

Take a virtual tour at: www.manitobaclub.mb.ca

[Manitoba Branch is hosting Conference at the Confluence 2012, the UELAC annual gathering and annual meeting from June 7 to 10 in Winnipeg. These vignettes will provide some of the local history and whet your appetite for more. Now is a good time to plan your trip to the conference, and join us there.]

St. Mark's Book Launch: Robert Addison: Scholar, Missionary, Minister

See the flyer about the launch of the book Robert Addison: Scholar, Missionary, Minister to be held Sunday March 25, 3:00pm, at St. Mark's in Niagara-on-the-Lake

The Early Church

The story of St. Mark's Church in Niagara-on-the-Lake has its beginning in 1790, when two residents wrote to Bishop Inglis of Nova Scotia requesting that a clergyman be sent to minister to the residents of the new village. The following year, the Reverend Robert Addison was commissioned as missionary and minister at Niagara. The Church and indeed the whole Diocese of Niagara owe their origins to his pioneer work.

As early as 1759, when the French Fort Niagara, on what is now the American side of the Niagara River, had been captured by the British, the Reverend John Ogilvie came from Albany, N.Y. to hold Anglican services for several months. During the upheavals of the American Revolution, settlers crossed the Niagara River and established farms and a small community on the west bank. In 1784, the Reverend John Stuart of Kingston visited the community briefly and preached in Fort Niagara.

The Bishop of Nova Scotia forwarded the request for a resident clergyman to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts in England. This Society was engaged in supporting mission work around the world. The Society had received an application from Robert Addison for service abroad. So, in May 1791, Addison was appointed and within a couple of months he set sail for Canada. He brought with him a silver chalice and his library of more than 1,500 books, which remain possessions of St. Mark's.

When he arrived in Niagara the following July, Addison discovered that his "parish" included all of the little villages that were springing up from Fort Erie to Ancaster and from York (Toronto) to London, including the Native Reserve along the Grand River. There was no church building in what was called Newark, and services were held in the Masonic Lodge, or the Indian Council House. The congregation included most of the important people of the day, such as Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, Colonel John Butler and Major General Sir Isaac Brock. Addison also found himself the Chaplain to the newly formed legislature, a position that he was to fill for the next quarter century.

The land granted by the Crown for a Church lay midway between the town and the military establishment at Fort George. Work began quickly on the construction of a fine building with the stone being quarried from the escarpment and hauled to the site by the troops. It seemed for a while that the project was too ambitious for the small congregation and the work was not complete enough for the holding of services until 1809. The structure was rectangular and the outline of the extension for the chancel may still be seen in the floor boards. The building remains the oldest Anglican Church in continuous use in Ontario. As early as 1820 it was known as St. Mark's.

The cemetery surrounding the church was the community burial ground before the building began and one marker found near the foundation when the transepts were added bears the inscription "Lenerd Blanck deseaced 5 Aug 1782". The oldest stone in the cemetery is that of Elizabeth Kerr, daughter of Molly Brant and Sir William Johnson, who died in 1794.

War of 1812

During the War of 1812 the Church was used first as a hospital by the British and Canadian forces. When Major General Sir Isaac Brock was killed at Queenston, Addison conducted his funeral service and followed the cortege to the burial site in Fort George.

The American forces occupied the town in 1813. They destroyed the Fort and dug rifle pits in the cemetery, the contours of which can still be seen. The Church was used for stores and several of the markers in the cemetery bear the marks of what the local residents believed to be the scars left when the cooks used them for chopping meat. Before retreating across the river, the enemy burned the entire town except for one house and the lighthouse.

As soon as the town was liberated, the British army replaced the roof of the Church and used the building for their stores until their own Fort and commissary could be rebuilt. Since the first priority was to rebuild their houses, it was some time before attention could be given to refurbishing the Church and it was not until 1828 that St. Mark's was formally rededicated. A bell was furnished by public subscription and intended both to call people to worship and to sound the alarm in case of a fire in the town.

Years of Prosperity

In 1840, following the visit of the Right Reverend John Strachan, Bishop of Toronto, a subscription was begun to enlarge the church and by 1841 the addition of the transepts was completed. The east window was installed at that time, as well as the four tablets beside it, bearing the ten commandments, the Lord's Prayer and the Creed. Balconies were constructed on all three sides of the Church, primarily for the seating of the troops from the Fort.

In 1843 the two high pulpits were added, their sloped ceiling providing sufficient acoustical quality to allow the speaker to be heard throughout the Church. A new tower was added to the Church.

The Rectory was constructed in 1858, in the style of a Tuscan Villa favored by the well to do of the day. A chime of six bells was installed in the church tower in 1877, replacing the original bell. In 1886 a Sunday Schoolhouse was built.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the Church was significantly altered. The balconies were removed. The organ which had been in the west gallery was moved to the front of the Church. The box pews were removed and the paneling used as wainscoting around the Church. New pews were installed in both the nave and transepts. These major renovations were completed in time for the parish to celebrate its centennial in 1892.

The first half of the twentieth century saw a number of furnishings given as memorials. The altar, in memory of Warden John W. Ball, was hand crafted from a black walnut tree grown on his farm. Seven stained glass memorial windows, installed by McCausland of Toronto, added to the beauty of the Church. A lectern that had served in Grace Church in Detroit and had been a memorial to Captain W.L. Melville was given to St. Mark's Church where Captain Melville had worshipped for many years, as had his parents. Electric lighting was installed in both the Church and the Sunday Schoolhouse. Three bells were added to complete the set of chimes in the tower in memory of those who died in action during the First World War.

Restoration

By the early sixties it became evident that major repairs were required in the Church. Both the roof and floor of the Church were reinforced and restored and new lighting was installed. The organ was removed and the space it had occupied was converted into a Sacristy. The organ was placed in the balcony, supplemented by new pipes and a new console, as a memorial to those who had served in the Second World War. A new communion rail and baptismal font were installed. Ladies of the parish completed the needlework for new kneelers. The font and a stained glass window, both designed specifically for St. Mark's, were consecrated.

The Schoolhouse, which by then was referred to as the Parish Hall, was also in need of repair. In 1966, extensions were added to both sides. A Historic Building Foundation was established to separate the costs of maintaining the buildings from the regular finances of the Church, thus allowing donations to be made specifically for the maintenance of these historic properties.

As the Church approached its Bicentennial an era of renewed enthusiasm began. A concert grand piano was given to the congregation. Heraldic arms were presented, bearing the inscription Proclaim the Good News. The summer lecture series was instituted to offer challenging theological perspectives to the congregation and community. A concert committee was established to present regular concerts including organ, piano, vocal and instrumental music. The Peace Chapel was created in the north transept to be used for Eucharist services for small groups. The former pulpit, was converted into an altar for use in the chapel.

Throughout their long and colourful history across four centuries, the people of St. Mark's have remained true to their calling. They have worked together to sustain and enhance their buildings and property. They have worshipped together in times of stress and in times of celebration. If Robert Addison were to return today, he might at first find the words and music of the service falling strangely on his ears. Once accustomed to the newness of the language, however, he would find that this people have remained true to their calling to proclaim the gospel to a different, but equally needy world.

...Donald Combe

Loyalist Story Retold in National Children's Magazine

The true story of the first contact between loyalist settlers and the Native people of New Brunswick's St. John River has been retold in the Winter 2011 issue of R.E.A.L., The Canadian Kids' Magazine. This is the fourth story pertaining to loyalist history that the magazine has carried in the last two years. Stephen Davidson, the author of all four features, is a regular contributor to Loyalist Trails. Available by subscription only, single issues of R.E.A.L. can be purchased for $5.95 by contacting the editor, Erica Rodriguez at R.E.A.L. The Canadian Kids' Magazine,10520 Yonge St., 35B, # 277, Richmond Hill, ON, L4C 3C7 erica@realkidsmag.com. See the story's first page by clicking here.

The History of the Apple McIntosh

EMC Lifestyle, posted 5 March 2012, by Dennis Stein - The following is part of an ongoing series on the history of this region of Ontario.

No, I'm not talking about the computer, I'm talking about apples. The early history of our nation is full of small surprises if you look around, and a United Empire Loyalist who settled in Dundas county in a place which is now Dundela after being awarded land for his service to the British crown gave Canada something very special.

The man's name was John McIntosh, and one day in 1796, he was clearing farmland on the property near his house when he discovered a small clump of apple tree seedlings amongst the bush.

Read the rest of the article here.

Loyal Americans Hall of Honour Enriched With Six New Biographies

Six more biographies have been added to the Loyal Americans Hall of Honour as posted to the UELAC Honours and Recognition folder. The additions include The Hon. Charles Dufferin "Duff" Roblin Jr. inducted in 2003, Jack and Bernice Parrott from 2006, Lewis Wallbridge from 2007 and The Reverend Canon Alexander Wellesley Macnab, Charles Canniff James and Major John H. Sills from 2010.

The Bay of Quinte Branch UELAC created Loyal Americans Hall of Honour in 2003 to identify and celebrate those descendants of the United Empire Loyalists who made significant achievements, either locally, nationally or internationally. Brian Tackaberry, President of the Bay of Quinte Branch, has submitted an additional number to be added to this resource in the coming month.

...FHH

Pioneer Settlers to Have a New Home

FORT ERIE -- More than 19 months after the remains of 10 "pioneer" settlers were accidentally uncovered by a crew digging a natural gas line along a rural road in Fort Erie, planning to find them a permanent resting place can now begin.

Careful examination of the remains and the burial site revealed the burials at Point Abino are of a Christian type. Other historical evidence suggests the area, settled by United Empire Loyalists during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, may once have been a pioneer cemetery.

Read the full article.

Book of Remembrance -- War of 1812, York

In commemoration of the War of 1812, the City of Toronto Museum Services has produced a Book of Remembrance of those who served in the war. Initially those listed represent all combatants on both sides who died as a result of the attack on York in April 1813 but a page is also "dedicated to the memory of those whose names are not recorded in this book, but who gave their lives at the Battle of York, and to those whose span of days was shortened by their service. " However, the book also records the names of the York Militia who lost their lives in other battles. Familiar Loyalist names appear in the lists as do places far from the town of York such as Nelson, better known as Burlington today. The two warriors from the First Nations are listed anonymously but identified as Mississauga or Chippewa.

The spirit of this memorial is best found in the poem by R. Stacey Laforme of the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation.

Every person who went to war

And every person left behind to mourn
Was an individual who played a part in who we are
So see their faces, remember their pain, hear their words, their cries
For you cannot thank a people for what they accomplished
If you cannot see their face, if you cannot hear their voice
I remember, I see, I hear, I remember

The Book of Remembrance is available online (PDF).

...Dan Phillips/FHH

1812: Cornwall Arts n' Artifact Show, Saturday June 16, 2012

Cornwall Township Historical Society will hold a War of 1812 Arts n' Artifact Show on Saturday June 16, 2012 from 10am - 4pm at the St. Andrew's Church Hall in St Andrews West Ontario. Featured in this show will be artifacts and memorabilia from the War of 1812, artistic endeavours including paintings, poetry and literary items that help to tell the story of the war that helped to shape a nation. While emphasis will of course be on the local engagements including the Battle of Crysler's Farm, Battle of Hoople's Creek and the Movement of Military Stores from Cornwall, there will of course be items from other "theatres" of the war. As well, there will be local entertainment and perhaps the opportunity to raise a glass in a toast to our ancestors. If you would like some more information or perhaps to participate, please do not hesitate to contact me at carol.goddard@sympatico.ca or by phone at 613 938 2455. Hope you will be able to make the event, bring a friend and discover the hospitality of our area.

...Carol Goddard, UE

Media, 1812 and Escarpment Views

The winter 2011 issue Escarpment Views surfaced at a recent meeting of the Trafalgar Township Historical Society. As promised, Gloria Hildebrandt, editor, featured a "War of 1812-related article with a story by Adam Shoalts, about the stone house that John DeCou built near Thorold, and the historic role it played in the conflict with 'our' U.S. neighbours." Now many UELAC supporters may be familiar with the story of John DeCou as told in The Loyalist Gazette (Spring 2008, Vol. XLVI, No. 1), but this time the focus is on the role the house played as the base of operations for James Fitzgibbon and his "Bloody Boys". While the pictures of the house in 1925 as well as before the disastrous fire in 1950 will give readers a better idea of the home of John and Catherine and their eleven children, it will be the images of the stone ruins that evoke the struggle of the Niagara campaign.

The article is not on-line but you might find some copies still available at specific venues on the Niagara Escarpment . Go to http://war1812.tripod.com/decewhome.html to view images of the DeCew site similar to those in the article. For those not familiar with the Niagara Escarpment, Wikipedia is a good resource for this geological formation that snakes through Ontario, northern Michigan and Wisconsin.

As for the exploits of Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon, perhaps "Bloody Boys" was too strong for the title of Eric Walter's 2000 historical novel. You will find "Bully Boys" listed in the War of 1812 section of UELAC's "Books for the Young at Heart".

...FHH

The Tech Side: Free Software for Windows Users – by Wayne Scott, UE

OpenDisc is an OSS (Open Source Software) development group. Their mandate in part is "To provide a free alternative to costly software, with equal or often better quality equivalents to proprietary, shareware or freeware software for Microsoft Windows". They have come a long way towards achieving this goal.

There is both an Education version and a regular version. To see what programs are contained on the respective DVD, navigate to the upper navigation bar and click on Education or Programs. It is above the colour options bar.

There are 6 categories of programs: Design, Games, Internet, Multimedia, Productivity and Utilities. Clicking on any of these categories will open the list of programs. Each one has been compiled by a team of programmers and is a high caliber option to a commercial program.

Clicking on Design will show many programs, some of which follow. Gimp is a full-featured photo-editing program, similar to Photoshop Elements. This program is widely used to touch up photos, removing red-eye, mending old photos, and has many other digital manipulation tools. Inkscape is a vector graphics program. It is handy for drawing technical diagrams, charts, etc. NVU is a wysiwyg (what you see is what you get) web page editor with many advanced features such as integrated FTP, a style sheet editor and tabbed workspace. Lastly, there is a full-featured professional level desktop publishing program called Scribus. Among its many features is the use of True Type Fonts, CMYK colour management, and producing Press Ready output. With this program you have full control over every aspect of your project.

Games is another category. Of the games listed, within the game Neverball is a game called Neverputt. In your wildest imagination, you will never experience a mini-putt game like this, or so you are told.

Another category is Internet. Of the programs listed in this category, you will find the following interesting and useful programs. FileZilla is a really professional FTP client. Firefox, in case you don't already use it, is a full-featured web browser. If you are looking for a web browser that is faster, safer, blocks pop-ups and has tabbed browsing, look no further. By choosing extensions, increased functionality can be achieved. For those of you who do not have an Instant Messaging Client then Pigdin is what you are looking for. For the person who likes to bundle a bunch of routines together, Sea Monkey may be what you are looking for. It is based on Firefox but is a whole Internet suite that includes an email client, irc chat, and prevents malicious activeX controls from taking over. In addition, included security features make for a safe Internet experience. Thunderbird, the full-featured email client can be loaded individually. For the audiophiles among us there is Audacity a full-featured sound editor.

The Productivity category has some favourites and some new programs. Open Office in its latest iteration is included. PDF Creator is another popular program. As its name implies, it gives you the ability to create PDF files of items you create. GNUCash is a robust financial accounting package that can be used for home, group or small business financial affairs.

The final category is called Utilities. Of the programs listed, 4 stuck out in my mind as being quite useful. 7Zip can be used for compressing files into a smaller size, or unpacking zipped files that are sent to you. ABAKT is a full-featured back-up program. If you don't use one already, this one is worth trying. Clamwin is a well-respected powerful anti-virus program. Be careful and read about what the program will do automatically and what needs to be done manually. Finally, TruCrypt is a good encryption program. Any financial files stored on your computer should be in an encrypted folder to prevent unauthorized people from having a look at them. The files and programs mentioned by no means exhausts the list. I am sure you will have a favourite in no time.

You have the option of downloading the ISO (image) file and burning it onto your own DVD. Help is available from the site to do this. You may opt to download only individual files. This can be done by double clicking the individual file you want and choosing the file you want, most likely the "exe" version. This will download the file. Go to 'downloads' select the file by double clicking it. The program should load.

If this is a bit confusing for you, a $20.00 donation will result in you receiving 2 copies of the program DVD that contains all of the programs. This is a great deal!

You can email Wayne Scott to get in touch with questions or comments.

Additions to the Loyalist Directory

As time permits, we add information to the Loyalist Directory. The latest additions and updates are as follows:
- Perry, Samuel Sr., Samuel Jr. and Stephen - from David Clark

Last Post: Reid F. Dunham, UE

Reid passed away peacefully, surrounded by his family, on March 3, 2012 at St. Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, in his 94th year. Recently from St. Joseph's Villa, Dundas, ON, Reid lived for many years in Carlisle, ON. Predeceased by his wife, Kathleen "Kay" (Wilson), infant daughter Karen Dianne and brothers Lorne and Jack. Proud father of Walter of Mississauga ON, Dale (Carol) of Wyoming ON, David (Peggy) of London, ON, Craig (Anne) of Binbrook, ON and presently Copenhagen, Denmark, and Roger of Carlisle, ON. Proud grandfather of Mark, Andrew, Colin, Laura, Robert, Eric, and Matthew. Survived by his brothers Don (the late Carole), Orville "Tiny" (Ruth), and sisters-in-law Ruby Dunham, Helen Wilson and Lois Wilson.

Reid was born to Heather and Hilda Dunham in Arkona, ON, and was a WWII Pilot R.C.A.F., and British Naval Fleet Air Arm. A long-time employee of the Province of Ontario Food Inspection branch, Reid served his community on the Flamborough and Wentworth Public School Boards. A long-time active member of the Carlisle United Church, Reid also had a strong interest in genealogy. In later years he compiled an extensive family history and documented his United Empire Loyalist roots, as he drove his camper throughout Ontario and the rest of Canada.

Funeral Service was held at CARLISLE UNITED CHURCH on March 7, 2012. Interment at Arkona Cemetery. Please sign the Book of Condolence at www.kitchingsteepeandludwig.com. (London Free Press)

...Lynne Cook, UE

Queries

Response re Loyalists Returning to the USA Post-War

Here is one lead. A Loyalist businessman named Pell returned to the U.S., purchased Fort Ticonderoga, NY, on Lake Champlain, and preserved it. It is now owned by a non-profit and there are still Pells on the Board of Directors. Your contact is Mr. Christopher Fox, Curator, Thompson-Pell Research Center, Fort Ticonderoga; "Chris Fox" CFox@fort-ticonderoga.org.

Another probable source is: Mr. Geoffrey N. Stein, Senior Historian (Curator), New York State Museum, NYS Education Dept., Albany, NY.; gstein@mail.nysed.gov.

...Bill Davidson


I share your interest in the stories of returning loyalists -- a group I refer to as "boomerang loyalists". The fact that persecuted refugees returned to the United States was a far more common phenomenon than many loyalist descendants realize. They generally assume that all loyalist refugees made the best of it in what would become Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

But the vast majority of loyalists did indeed stay close to home after the Revolution. Only 60,000 of the total loyalist population became refugees. Many of the latter returned to the USA out of homesickness -- sometimes out of disgust with how poorly Britain rewarded their loyalty. Wives often returned to the States when their husbands died in British North America. It was the husband's political views which got the family in trouble, and with his death, the wife and children could return with less fear of harm. Sometimes the children of loyalists were sent to the States for their education and decided to stay.

Check out Lorenzo Sabine's Biographical Sketches of Loyalists, read Samuel Curwen's diary (available for free online), and the biographies of Yale's (and Harvard's) graduates. Many loyalist Anglican clergy returned to the USA in the years after the Revolution. If you haven't, try the Loyalist Research Network - scholars there may be able to direct you to other source material.

From the articles that I have written over the past 5 years for Loyalist Trails, some 19 reference loyalists who returned to the USA (I have sent those under separate cover). Their motives vary as much as their stories.

...Stephen Davidson

Eamer and Wood Families

We are looking for information about the EAMER and WOOD families. Margaret EAMER married Enos Wood on 30 July 1853 in the Town of Cornwall at St. John's Church. My husband Lyle is a descendant.

I would like to determine how (or if) Margaret is related to "United Empire Loyalist Peter Eamer - Proven Loyalist - Pte in 2nd Bn KRRNY, Lt. 3/1/1809 in 1st Regiment of Stormont Militia, Capt 24/2/1817 in 1st Regiment of Stormont Militia, Death at Cornwall Township, ON"

We visited Cornwall, ON about 15 years ago, visited a couple of the churches, found some records and then walked around the city cemetery, found lots of stones but not knowing the relationship we took pictures not knowing which Eamer/Wood were our relatives. Enos and Margaret Eamer Wood actually left Cornwall in 1855 after their first son was born, moved to Chicago, Tennessee, Chicago again, then north to St. Paul, Minnesota and finally to Polk County, Wisconsin having children all along the way. Their eleven children all met their spouses in Polk County Wisconsin and when both Enos and Margaret died they were buried in the East Lincoln Cemetery, Rural Amery, Wisconsin. Most of Enos and Margaret's eleven children are also buried there, as are several of the great-grandchildren/spouses.

Another local family with origins in Cornwall ON is the Martin Waldroff family (maiden name for the Waldroff wife is Rambough (Adalaide). When exactly Martin Waldroff (this MAY be a Martin Junior) and Adalaide Rambough left Cornwall and came to the US I am not sure, but their oldest daughter of whom I have a record was born in St. Croix County, Wisconsin in 1892. This Martin Waldroff's father was John his mother was Sarah Schaffer and this family keeps using the same names over again in every other generation. The Waldroff gentlemen we know is John again!

...Helen Stoltz-Wood

Minimum Age to Apply for a Land Grant

I was wondering if someone might be able to answer a question for me. I have an ancestor's Upper Canada land petition from Kingston. My question is what would be the minimum age that a son of a UEL would be able to apply for a Land Grant?

...Mark Biles

Printing Loyalist Trails

Although I may finally move away from paper and rely on the copies of Loyalist Trails to be found online, I am wondering if others have been printing. If so, would you mind sharing how you print them and then store them.

...Catherine Graham

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