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Loyalist Trails UELAC Newsletter, 2007 Archive

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"Loyalist Trails" 2007-44: November 11, 2007

Articles

November 11, 1813 – The Battle of Crysler’s Farm, By Carolyn Goddard, UE

In Canada, the 11th of November is designated as Remembrance Day. It is a day when the citizens of this country remember and acknowledge the contribution of members of the Canadian Armed Forces who have served, or who are currently serving, their country. November 11th was also the day in 1813 when the Battle of Crysler’s Farm took place, on farmer’s fields just east of Morrisburg Ontario. This battle, one of the most important of the War of 1812-14, was fought between the invading American Forces and the combined strength of the British Regulars, Canadian Militia and Indian allies. Despite being vastly outnumbered on the battlefield, the British forces defeated the invaders and the American march on Montreal was halted. This American defeat, coupled with the earlier British victory at Chatequay in Quebec, ensured that the St. Lawrence would remain open to the British.

There are many stories associated with the Battle of Crysler’s Farm and most are well known to students of history. However, when the armies met on those farmer’s fields, they were not alone. These farms were populated by men, women and children. What were their stories? Who were they? What did they think and feel as they saw the two armies make camp and prepare to do battle?

After the victory of the “rebels” during the American Revolution, those who had remained loyal to the British crown were forced to relocate elsewhere. Some traveled to Britain, some to the Caribbean, but many thousands traveled to British North America to make their new homes. Loyalists who were members of the King’s Royal Regiment of New York, a British Colonial Regiment, and received land grants in Dundas County. Before and after the Treaty of Paris 1783, these soldier settlers and their families made their way up from either the refugee camp in Sorrel Quebec or traveled by foot from their former homes in the United States of America. They arrived in their new homes with very little personal property and government supplies for one year. These people had survived the ostracism of former friends and family, personal attacks, confiscation of their property by the “revolutionaries” and the arduous journey to their new homes.

By the time of the Battle of Crysler’s Farm, the industrious Loyalist settlers had been able to clear a goodly amount of land, build solid log cabin houses, cultivate crops and still find time for social activities. Many of the nearby homes would have had outside bake ovens, kept bee hives for honey and there was a blacksmith in the area as well as other commercial concerns. The new country of the United States of America was just across the river and it is known that there was much “international activity” between the two peoples.

Despite all the “comings and goings” between the USA and the nearby British Colony, in 1812 war was declared between the USA and Great Britain. The war would be fought, not in Europe, but in the newly settled areas of British North America and the United States. Memories and old fears would certainly have come to the surface in the minds of these settlers as the news that another war with the Americans had begun. The apprehension felt would have increased as the news of battles in Ogdensburg, Cornwall and Hoople’s Creek as well as others reached their ears. The stories of the local militiamen as they returned to their homes to prepare for battle would only serve to reinforce their fears. As the boats carrying the British regulars put ashore and Indian allies arrived, the anxiety of the non-combatants would have reached frightening proportions. The invading American regiments made their camp near the Stormont-Dundas County line. The settlers and their homes were now caught between two armies; with their precious land soon to be the site of a battle.

The local inhabitants had many reasons to fear the arrival of both armies, in addition to the most obvious one of the coming battle. Armies require food and other supplies in large quantities. There is evidence from official requests for compensation, that both armies requisitioned the settler’s stores of food, their wood fences (the wood was used to build fires), bee hives and other articles as they made their camps. Stories of women and children hiding in cellars during the battle and of the nearby houses being used as battlefield hospital still survive to this day. There is little doubt that local inhabitants would have assisted the wounded whenever possible.

The battle began in the morning of November 11th 1813, with the culmination of the action taking place on Peter Fetterly’s farm, hours later. The day was cold and rainy, the land wet and muddy and the casualties great. The British government recognized the significance of this battle and the “British” victory there, for it is one of the few battles of the War of 1812-14 for which a medal was given to the participants. In order to receive the medal, the former combatants had to petition the British government themselves and many of the members of local militia units were unable to do so. There was also a pension given to militia members for their service in the war, but this was not instituted until the late 1870’s.

Students of Canadian history will remember the national and international effects of the British victory at Crysler’s Farm, but what were the local effects? Immediately after the battle, mass graves were constructed as the scores of fallen soldiers were buried and battlefield hospitals set up. The local inhabitants would have assisted in the care of the dying and wounded as well as in the internment of the victims of this battle. The land would have to be reclaimed for agricultural use, compensation claims for requisitioned as well as destroyed items made and somehow the local people would have to deal with the emotional toll of this event. Stories handed down through the generations tell of women and children hiding from the soldiers, the cries of the dying and the pride of the survivors. After the conclusion of this war, settlement began in earnest north of the St. Lawrence River as some inhabitants moved away from the riverfront to ensure their safety should invading armies threaten again.

Almost a century after the battle, a Battlefield Memorial was erected by residents of this area. During the Seaway Project, a large portion of the actual battlefield was submerged and the memorial relocated to its present location, atop a hill composed of ground from the battlefield. A memorial garden and small museum provide visitors with information and displays detailing the events of November 11, 1813. From the height of the Battlefield Memorial one can look across the surrounding area and reflect upon the events of that November 11. Walk the many steps to the top of that hill and look over what was once part of the battlefield. If you close your eyes and are very lucky, you may be able to hear the drums, smell the cannon’s smoke and feel the movement of the earth as those who experienced it first hand did.

There is a debt owed to these soldiers of long ago. We must remember their sacrifices and in doing so, ensure that the remaining portion of this “Canadian” battlefield is preserved and protected for future generations.

...Carolyn Goddard UE, St. Lawrence Branch

[Editor's Note: Today I am sure many of you took the opportunity at a Church Service or Memorial to remember the actions of so many in the past, and ongoing today, to help preserve the way of life we have and want our children to have. I attended the memorial service at Queen's Park, Ontario's Legislative Assembly building and grounds, here in Toronto, at the veteran's monument. The service was simple, but touching. We will not forget.]

Appreciation from Black Loyalist Heritage Society for "Windows for St. Paul's"

This week, Senior Vice President Fred H. Hayward received the following letter of appreciation from Richard Gallion, President of the Black Loyalist Heritage Society in Nova Scotia:

On behalf of the Board of Directors of the Black Loyalist Heritage Society, I would like to extend our sincere thanks and appreciation for the generous donation of one thousand, seven hundred, thirty nine dollars ($1729.00) which will be applied to the restoration fund of the St. Paul's Church stain glass windows for a total of four (4) window sponsorships for the United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada.

We applaud the UELAC's continued support of our heritage site's programs and initiatives. Your members have out-done themselves with their financial contributions to the St. Paul's Stain Glass Window Restoration Project. Please share this letter with all who helped make this wonderful donation possible. Watch for our upcoming Fall & Winter 2007 Newsletter which will contain a full update on the window restoration project and of course, highlight, the UELAC's generosity.

Readers can review the special summer 2007 UELAC project here.

The Prairie Region Members Meet in Calgary

During the last weekend in October I had the honour of attending the Prairie Regional Meeting in Calgary, hosted by Calgary Branch. A business meeting was held in style at the residence of Lorna and Jim Stewart on the Friday evening. It was productive.

St. Andrew's Anglican Church Hall served as the location for the presentations delivered Saturday by Pat Adair on publishing your family history, Margaret Carter on 18th century fashions and customs, and my own on Loyalists and the Military. A fine lunch followed. During the afternoon there was time to tour Calgary's wonderful Glenbow Museum. Many of those present attended a dinner at the Best Western in the evening.

I had to leave Sunday morning, but I understand there was a wonderful Church service at St. Andrew's followed by an afternoon Tea at the Stewarts. I had a great time, and I want to thank Calgary Branch, the Adairs and all those involved in making this event a success.

...Peter W. Johnson UE, President, UELAC

Manitoba Branch Celebrates 75th Anniversary

On 3 November 2007, Senior Vice President Fred H. Hayward flew to Winnipeg to address the Manitoba Branch UELAC who were celebrating their 75th Anniversary at the Manitoba Club. UELAC Historian/Archivist Elizabeth Richardson was to have been the speaker at this special occasion, but has been recovering from an operation in Ross Memorial Hospital in Lindsay ON. Prairie Regional Vice President Gerry Adair and his wife Pat, and Regina Branch President Logan Bjarnason and his wife Shirley also attended the luncheon. Congratulations and we look forward to your centennial celebrations.

...Fred Hayward UE

Heritage Branch in Fine Form

On November 7th Heritage Branch held a dinner at the Officers' Mess of the Black Watch in Montreal. I was greatly honoured to be invited and have the chance to address the Branch. It was also a pleasure to meet the many guests there that evening as well as visiting members from Sir John Johnson Branch. It was a wonderful evening, and I also had the pleasure of staying with Sylvia and Okill Stuart UE during my stay. Congratulations to President Robert Wilkins UE and the Heritage Branch Members for staging such a successful event.

...Peter W. Johnson UE, President UELAC

A Very Special Day for Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh

On Nov 20th Her Majesty and the Duke of Edinburgh celebrate their Diamond Wedding Anniversary. As descendants of 18th century Americans who fought to maintain ties with the Monarchy and demonstrated their loyalty, it is not surprising that we take an interest in and pleasure from the achievements of the Royal Family of our own time. We are not the Monarchist League, but respect for the Monarchy is a factor in defining our Association. With that in mind, I was pleased to send a letter of congratulations on behalf of the UELAC to Her Majesty and the Duke of Edinburgh.

God Save the Queen!

...Peter W. Johnson UE, President, UELAC

Loyalists Found Canada's First English University, by Stephen Davidson

The oldest English university in the Commonwealth outside of the United Kingdom was founded by loyalist refugees within six years of their arrival on our shores. However, the identity of that institution of higher learning is rather controversial. Both the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton and the University of King's College in Halifax claim to be Canada's first. But whichever campus wins the debate, the fact that it was loyalists who founded the country's oldest English university is beyond doubt.

What is especially amazing about this story is the fact that loyalists sat down before they left the United States in 1783 and made preparations to found a university in the colony where they would settle. Rev. John Beardsley, the former rector of the Anglican church in Poughkeepsie, New York and the chaplain to the Loyal American Regiment, was among 18 other scholars and ministers who met to create a “Plan of [a] Religious and Literary Institution for the Province of Nova Scotia”.

These loyalists were quick to recognize that if Britain did not provide higher learning in Nova Scotia, their sons would have to travel to the new United States to receive a university degree. However in the new republic, loyalist offspring would be instructed in "principles contrary to the British Constitution". Consequently, the farseeing loyalists drew up a plan to present to the government in Britain urging it to found "a College . . . where Youth may receive a virtuous Education" in such things as "Religion, Literature, Loyalty, & good Morals . . ."

Beardsley, like a number of loyalists, was a graduate of King's College in New York. While patriots quickly reconstituted that college as Columbia University, loyalists in both New Brunswick and Nova Scotia named their institutions of higher learning King's College.

In 1789 Windsor, Nova Scotia became the site of the new college which eventually received a royal charter from King George III in 1802. (At about this same time, students at King's College began to play a game involving two teams on ice skates, giving Windsor the right to claim itself the birthplace of hockey.) The college campus remained in the quiet town on the edge of the Annapolis Valley until it was completely destroyed by fire. With a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, the college moved next to Dalhousie University in Halifax and became the University of King's College in 1920.

However, another King's College also claims to be Canada's first university. Although it cannot boast that its students invented a major international sport, the University of New Brunswick did build the first astronomical observatory in British North America, and has Canada's oldest student newspaper.

The loyalists who sat down to make plans for the university education of their sons had no way of knowing that the massive influx of refugees into the western portion of Nova Scotia in 1783 would lead to division of the colony into two new jurisdictions in the following year. Consequently some of the educational planners lived in the new colony of New Brunswick while others were in "old" Nova Scotia. Which British colony would be home to the university that loyalists had conceived in 1783?

Naturally, those who settled in New Brunswick felt that the university should be in their colony. On December 13, 1785, seven men presented Governor Thomas Carleton with a petition to create an "academy or school of liberal arts and sciences," which they felt would have many "public advantages and . . .conveniences." In addition, the "principal Officers of disbanded Corps and other Inhabitants" in and around Fredericton asked that the governor reserve a large enough grant of land to house this academy.

The request was approved and the Provincial Academy of Arts and Sciences came into being. However, it would be many years before the academy opened its doors. In the intervening time, a crucial philosophy of the founders was lost. Rather than admitting students from every denomination (as was the practice at New York's King's College), only Anglicans could attend --and teach--the new academy's classes.

When politicians in the colony's opposition wrote off the Provincial Academy as nothing but a country school, the governor made sure it received a provincial charter in 1800 as the College of New Brunswick. This document also made the college the first state-sponsored in British North America. However, until 1822, the school functioned as an academy rather than a college.

In 1828 the academy received a royal charter, a stone building to house its classes, and a new name -- King's College. Within 18 years religious restrictions for students were abolished and in 1859 the college was reconstituted as the University of New Brunswick. Twenty-seven years later, UNB admitted its first female students. Although the university's curriculum focussed on classical studies, by the mid-19th century new scientific disciplines had been introduced. Despite its limited resources, the University of New Brunswick was considered second only to the University of Toronto for the calibre of its education. Today UNB is noted as a multidisciplinary institution, particularly for science, engineering, he liberal arts and forestry.

But which English university is truly Canada's first? The University of King's College in Halifax -- or the University of New Brunswick in Fredericton? The debate still rages on, but however it is finally settled, one fact remains unchanged -- Canada's first English university was founded by loyalists.

[Editor's Note: By way of comparison, the oldest French University in Canada, Université Laval in Quebec, traces its origins to the Séminaire du Québec founded with the authorization of the King of France in 1663, an earlier date. As well, there are a number of academic institutions in the Indian sub-continent from an earlier period.]

...Stephen Davidson (whose daughter will graduate from UNB 100 years after his great-aunt did in 1908)

Col. Stephen Jarvis: Danbury CT to Fredericton NB to York UC (ON)

Colonel Stephen Jarvis was born in Danbury Connecticut December 6, 1756 He was a soldier and a loyalist and after the war immigrated to New Brunswick where his second cousins Munson and John had already settled. He resided in Fredericton from 1785 to 1809. In June of 1809 he moved to Upper Canada with his wife and 6 children, aged, 25,22,20,14,12 and 10. He arrived on the 28th of August where he was met by William Jarvis, his cousin the Provincial Secretary who was responsible for persuading him to move to York.

Stephen married Amelia Glover, and over this lady he and his father had a disagreement, which lead to his son, immediately after the battle of Bunker Hill in1775, joining a draft militia to garrison New York. He was made a prisoner in Danbury but escaped in a canoe to Long Island, where he went on board a British Sloop lying off Huntington. He found his way to New York, joined the army as a Sergeant and fought in various battles about New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

He was quartered at Richmond, Statten Island during the winter of 1780, and was one of the expedition fitted out to capture General Washington at his headquarters on the Hudson. Soon after the Regiment embarked from Charlestown, South Carolina and after the surrender in May 1780, he returned to New York with the regiment. Soon after an expedition was outfitted for Virginia and he was detailed as quartermaster of the 17th Light Dragoons. While in Charlestown he was made Lieutenant. In 1782 he was order with the regiment to St. Augustine, Florida to garrison that place, where he remained until peace was declared in 1783.

At York U.C. He was given Public Office at one hundred pounds per annum and 1200 acres of Government land and 400 for his eldest son. He was appointed Adjutant General of Militia, and served until York was captured by the United States troops. He was taken prisoner.

After the peace he was engaged in business until his death in 1840.

Details of his exploits can be found in the Journal of American History

...Robert Jarvis

Restoring the Anglican Rectory at Sorel

Two weeks ago my husband and I visited Sorel-Tracy in search of my Loyalist roots. It was really thrilling to stand on the very land where my Faddle (Farrell) and Buck ancestors stood when they arrived in Canada. We found the Anglican church where my ancestors worshipped. It was the second Anglican mission established in Canada...second only to Halifax. It is now a francophone parish with very few anglophones in the parish. We were fortunate that we arrived on a Tuesday, when they serve lunch in the church hall, so we found the priest, Holly Ratcliffe, and a parishioner, Bill Manning, there.

Perhaps you have heard that they are raising funds to rejuvenate the rectory. There have been at least two articles in the Montreal Gazzette this month regarding the fund raising. UEL members might like to contribute to the cause as many of their ancestors arrived in Canada via the Richilieu River from the Lake Champlain basin. Click here for one of the articles.

...Josephine and Keith Ross

Cemeteries in the United Counties of Dundas and Stormont

This new book is titled "Data on Existing Cemeteries in the United Counties of Dundas and Stormont affected by the St. Lawrence Power Project, with corrections and additions by Lyall and Margaret Manson, 2007"

18 cemeteries were affected by the Seaway. When they were moving the cemeteries, Ontario Hydro wrote a book with a description of each cemetery, and every stone had a disc with the code of the cemetery and a number. Only a few copies of the book were printed.

Lyall and Margaret Manson of Cornwall searched out the stones and some were missing. Lyall contacted Ontario Hydro and got the maps that showed the original placing of stones, but didn't help find the missing stones. He contacted Upper Canada Village but after 50 years they didn't know where they were. He contacted people who used to work there and eventually found the missing stones in a heap. After they were recovered some were put around the church in the Village and Lyall has marked where some of them are now.

Lyall and Margaret retyped the original book and indexed it. They have donated it to St. Lawrence Branch. It is available in hardcopy and on CD.

Cost:

Book: $30.00 CDN plus Shipping and Handling:

- Any location in Ontario: $9.00 CDN.

- Other locations in Canada and the USA: $12.00 CDN.

CD: $25.00 CDN per CD-ROM plus Shipping and Handling $2.00 CDN.

To order:

Only personal cheques or money orders are accepted. Only prepaid orders will be filled. Make cheque or money order payable to: St. Lawrence Branch UELAC.

You order can be picked up at the Loyalist Resource Centre.

By mail, an order form has been kindly posted on the web by Ed Kipp at his web site - you can print it here, or just send your payment with return mailing information to:

St. Lawrence Branch UELAC

Box 607

Morrisburg, ON K0C 1X0

...Lynne Cook UE

Contest for Continents: The Seven Years' War in Global Perspective

The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, together with Niagara and Brock Universities, will host a conference on October 22--24, 2009, to examine the Seven Years'' War (the French and Indian War, 1754--1763) as a global conflict. With nearly one million battlefield deaths and fighting on four continents and in three oceans, the Great War for Empire stands as the first world war. The conference will address the conflict as one that transcended the national and imperial categories that have traditionally been used to evaluate it. The object is to study the war both globally, involving North America, South Asia, Europe, the Caribbean, West Africa, and the Philippines, and in transnational perspective, including its military, diplomatic, political, cultural, economic, and social aspects.

To underscore the war's international dimensions, sessions will be held on both sides of the U.S./Canada border, on the campuses of Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, and Niagara University in Niagara Falls, New York, and at Old Fort Niagara in Youngstown, New York, which will be commemorating the 250th anniversary of its 1759 siege and surrender. Although English will be the working language of the conference, we aim to guarantee a diversity of exchanges and points of view by drawing participants from a wide variety of fields and national perspectives.

This announcement carried a "Call For Papers". For the full announcement send a note to loyalist.trails@uelac.org.

...Bill Smy

Sailing and Immigrating to Canada in the Early 1800s

In 1817 the Rev. William Bell and his family set out from Scotland for Canada. He used his letters about the trip to Lanark County and his settlement there for a book published in 1924. “Hints to Emigrants in a Series of Letters from Upper Canada by the Rev. William Bell, Minister of the Presbyterian Congregation, Perth, Upper Canada.” has been posted online.

If you are interested in an example of the conditions those coming across the Atlantic into early settlement areas experienced, it is well worth a read.

[submitted by Bev Loomis]

UELAC.org Updates This Week

New information about John Dease, a nephew of Sir William Johnson, provided by Gary Slater and about William Marsh as supplied by Peter Johnson was added to the Loyalist Directory.

Information About Life of Ann Durham, Wife of Ralph Morden

A while back I wrote an article about Ralph Morden, which editor Robert McBride published as "Hanging an Innocent Man" in the Spring 2005 Issue of the Loyalist Gazette. Ralph was a tenant farmer from Northhampton county PA who was hanged on Nov.25th, 1780 in Easton PA for helping a friend Robert Land flee to Canada. Robert, son of Samuel Land, was a British dispatch carrier who was wanted by the Rebels.

I am researching now an article about Ann (Durham) Morden who was born in New Jersey. She wed Ralph Morden and they had several children: John, James, Moses, Catherine, Jane, Eleanor, Anne, and Elizabeth, probably all born Northampton County PA. I have no birth records for these children.

John, James, and Moses all joined the Loyalist banner.

Ann endured unbelievable hardship at the hands of so-called friends and the Rebels and decided to make the trek to Canada. to Canada. Ann, apparently with her four daughters, a nephew and two grandaughters belonging to one of her daughters travelled from Easton PA to Canada via old Indian trails and through the mountains and on to Fort Niagara, sometime after the end of the war, 1786-1787 where they met her three sons. The trip was made apparently with about four hundred other Loyalists.

Ann eventually settled in the Dundas Ontario area along with John and Moses while James moved on to the Quinte region.

I would be most grateful for any and all information about Ann, her Durham family, life and times in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the time after the hanging of her husband Ralph, the trek to Canada, and her family and their families in Canada.

...Alan E. Morden UE {alan_morden AT sympatico DOT ca} how do I email him?

Do You have Examples of How Our Loyalists Were Remembered?

I am beginning the early stages of work on my dissertation, entitled "Reconciling Revolution: Loyalists and Patriots in the Post-Revolutionary Atlantic World" here at the University of Western Ontario. To get started, I am examining the different ways Loyalists are remembered in Canada and the United States.

I have heard of a few examples of Loyalists being cut out of family trees in American lines or in local American histories. If people have come across this phenomenon, I would very much like to hear about it. Please e-mail me at {tcompeau AT gmail DOT com} if you have any information you would be willing to share. How do I email him? I'll be sure to acknowledge all contributions in the final product.

...Tim Compeau

[editor's note: Tim is the winner of the UELAC scholarship this year, and in his PhD program, is eligible for up to three annual scholarship awards of $2,500 each. He has worked in the museum field for several years, usually with a Loyalist connection. Tim has made a number of submissions to Loyalist Trails. He has spoken to some branches about his programs and is scheduled to visit more branches. Tim entered into his PhD program this Fall.]

Samuel Canfield

This week I received an email from Susan E. Williams in Lake Wales, FL requesting information on a Samuel and Lucy Canfield UEL.

When I was a student in grade 7, I wrote a speech about Samuel and Lucy Canfield, UEL. They were of interest to me because their tombstone was/is located in the Pioneer Cemetery, Oxford Centre, ON. Now I want to know more about them, but can't find anything on-line; can you help? -- Sue.

Canfield does not appear on our Directory of Loyalists. If you can be of assistance, please email fhhayward@idirect.com with information for forwarding.

...Fred H. Hayward, Sr. VP UELAC

To protect the people who send in queries from unwanted spam email, the online edition of Loyalist Trails no longer uses direct hyperlinks for their email addresses. Simply rewrite "name AT website DOT net" as name@website.net and sent your email to that address. For example, "doug DOT grant AT insurance-canada DOT ca" is doug.grant@insurance-canada.ca. Contact Doug with questions, or to be put in touch with someone whose email address is not listed.